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Bio Metrics Retina Scan

Bio Metrics Retina Scan

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Published by chopde2001

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Published by: chopde2001 on Feb 27, 2010
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07/30/2011

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ABSTRACT
Many information systems involve data about people. In order to reliably associate data with particular individuals, it is necessary that an effective and efficient identification scheme be establishedand maintained. There is remarkably little in the information technology literature concerning humanidentification. This paper seeks to overcome that deficiency, by undertaking a survey of human identityand human identification. The technique discussed includes
RETINA SCAN 
.The key challenge to management and security agencies is identified as being to devise a schemewhich is practicable and economic, and of sufficiently high integrity to address the risks the organizationconfronts in its dealings with people and the security agencies while protecting VIPs and places of greatsecurity concern such as treasures, ordinance factories,Parlement,State Assemblies etc. It is proposed thatmuch greater use be made of schemes which are designed to afford people anonymity, or enable them touse multiple identities or pseudonyms, while at the same time protecting the nation's own interests.This paper mainly deals with identification of an individuel based on the
retinal vascularpattern
of the human eye. This pattern is a unique characteristic, even for identical twins, and remainsstable throughout an individual’s life.
1
 
INTRODUCTION
Human identity is a delicate notion which requires consideration at the levels of philosophy and psychology. Human identification, on the other hand, is a practical matter. In a variety of contexts, each of us needs to identify other individuals, in order to conduct a conversation or transact. Organizations seek toidentify the individuals with whom they deal, variously to provide better service to them, and to protecttheir own interests while security agencies will always need this for the protection of VIPs, places of highsecurity importance where authenticity plays.The use of human identification in the personal data systems used by organizations, governmentand security agencies is remarkably little-discussed in the information systems literature. The purpose of this paper is to make good that gap, by undertaking a survey of the topic, and identifying matters of concern to managers and policy-makers. The paper commences by outlining the concepts of humanidentity and human identification, and examining the reasons why organizations need to identify people.This paper mainly deals with identification of an individuel based on the
retinal vascular pattern
of thehuman eye. This pattern is a unique characteristic, even for identical twins, and remains stable throughoutan individual’s life.
Human Identity
In the context under discussion, identity is used to mean "the condition of being a specified person” or "the condition of being oneself ... and not another”. It clusters with the terms 'personality','individuality' and 'individualism', and less fashionably, 'soul'. It implies the existence for each person of  private space, in which one's attitudes and actions can define one's self.
Human Identification
The term 'identification' means the act or process of "establishing the identity of, [or]recognizing", or "the treating of a thing as identical with another” or "the act [or process] of recognizing or establishing as being a particular person", but also "the act [or process] of making, representing to be, or regarding or treating as the same or identical".
THE ANATOMY AND PHISIOLOGY OF EYE
The human eye is a complex anatomical device that remarkably demonstrates the architecturalwonders of the human body. Like a camera, the eye is able to refract light and produce a focused imagethat can stimulate neural responses and enable the ability to see.The inner surface of the eye is known as the
retina
. Each part of the eye plays a distinct part inenabling humans to see. The ultimate goal of such an anatomy is to allow humans to focus images on the back of the retina. Figure 1 &2 shows the structure of human eye.
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Figure: 1 Human EyeFigure: 2 Human Eyes (American Academy of Ophthalmology)
Anatomy of Retina
All vertebrate retinas contain at least two types of photoreceptors—the familiar rods and cones.Rods are generally used for low-light vision and cones for daylight, bright-colored vision. An adult eye istypically equipped with 120 million rods which detect the intensity of light and 6 million coneswhich detect the frequency of light. The retina contains the rods and cones which serve the task of detecting the intensity and the frequency of the incoming light. These rods and cones send nerve impulsesto the brain. The nerve impulses travel through a network of nerve cells; there are as many as one-millionneural pathways from the rods and cones to the brain. This network of nerve cells is bundled together toform the
optic nerve
on the very back of the eyeball.
3
 

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