HALL • PIRATE PHILOSOPHY
2Library of Science), working in conjunction with SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition), Students forFreeCulture and the Alliance for Taxpayer Access.
For those stillunfamiliar with the term, open access is concerned with making peerreviewed scholarly research and publications freely available onlinefor all those who are able to access the Internet, without the need topay subscriptions either to publish or to (pay per)view it (in openaccess’ purest forms, anyway). ‘Free’ in this context also means freeto upload to and download from, free to read, print out, reproduceand distribute copies, and also free of the majority of restrictionsassociated with publishers’ policies, licensing and copyrightagreements.
While there are many different variations of open access, most takeone of two main forms: what are called the ‘Gold’ and the ‘Green’roads to open access. The ‘Gold Road’ refers to publishing researchin online open access journals; the ‘Green Road’ to authors makingtheir work - which may or may not have
been publishedelsewhere – available open access by self-archiving digital copies of itin either subject or institutionally-based online repositories. Thatsaid it is also worth noting a further nuance in the understanding of open access, something that has been introduced recently in thename of greater accuracy and precision. This concerns a distinctionthat at times needs to be made between what is termed
OA. Gratis OA is where the obstacle of cost, and only theobstacle of cost, has been taken out of the equation, so that access toresearch published gratis OA is
available (as in ‘free beer’). Inlibre OA, meanwhile, not only has the obstacle of cost beenremoved, one or more of the barriers concerning the permissionsthat need to be sought to copy, reproduce or distribute a given text
have been removed too. Yet these last two terms are really only
necessary when one wants to differentiate explicitly between openaccess that is gratis and libre. For the most part it is just the termopen access, and within that, ‘Gold’ and ‘Green’ open access, that isused (Suber, 2008). A number of different arguments have been put forward as to why academics should make their research – which they may also be dueto publish in a journal or with a publisher of their own choosing, if they have not already done so - freely available open access, not only to other universities, but also to colleges, research institutes, schools,public libraries, community centresand the general public alike, on a world-wide basis.They include: