then follow those steps as faithfully as possible. In qualitative studies , by contrast, the progression is closer to a circle than to a straight line- qualitative researchersare continually examining and interpreting data and making decisions about howto proceed based on what has already been discovered. Because qualitativeresearchers have a flexible approaches to the collection and analysis of data, it isimpossible to define the flow of activities precisely – the flow varies from onestudy to another, and the researchers themselves do not know ahead of timeexactly how the study will proceed.The following section provides a sense of how qualitative studies are conducted bydescribing some major activities.
Conceptualizing and planning qualitative study
Identifying the research problemDoing literature reviewSelecting and gaining entrée into research sitesResearch designConducting the qualitative studyDisseminating qualitative findings.Parse , coyne ,and smith (1985) suggested that research methods , whether qualitative or quantitative , include the following 5 basic elements.1.Identifying the phenomena2.Structuring the study3.Gathering the dated4. Analyzing the data5.Describing the findings
QUALITATIVE APPROACHES IN NURSING RESEARCH
1.Phenomenology2.Grounded theory3.Ethnography4.Case study5.Historical research
The phenomenological method is a process of learning and constructing themeaning of human experience through intensive dialogue with persons whoare living the experience. The researchers goal is to understand the meaning of the experience as it is lived by the participant. Meaning is pursued through adialogue process, which extends beyond a simple interview and requiresthoughtful presence on the part of the researcher.
Identifying the phenomenon
Because the focus of the phenomenological method is the lived experience,the researcher is likely to choose method when studying some dimension of day-to-day existence for a particular group of individuals.For instance, the nurse may be interested in the experience of anger for personswho have heart disease or the experience of success for baccalaureate nursingstudents.3