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Alg Trig Lectures

Alg Trig Lectures

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Published by: muzman1968 on Feb 28, 2010
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OB-81 LECTURE NOTES (FIRST HALF OF COURSE)
THOMAS WARD
Contents
1. Introduction (3 lectures)...................................21.1. Algebra21.2. Logarithms81.3. Binomial theorem82. Trigonometry (4 lectures)..................................92.1. Angles102.2. Triangles102.3. Right triangles102.4. Trigonometric functions122.5. Cosine and sine rule123. Functions and equations (3 lectures).......................143.1. Solving equations153.2. Graphs of functions163.3. Quadratic formula174. Useful web sites ...........................................23These notes are designed to accompany the lectures in the first half of OB81. Please let me know if you find errors. There will be a currentcorrected version on the web athttp://www.mth.uea.ac.uk/˜h720/lecture notes/Don’t panic if they look very difficult or very easy to you. For someof you this is useful revision (though please contact me if you are bored)and for some this is new material (though please contact me if you arereally feeling unable to keep up). The main point of contact outsidethe lectures will be seminars every fortnight, but you can come and seeme at any time (my office hours are Wednesday 10-11: at other timesI am happy to meet with you but may be busy with other things).
1
 
2 THOMAS WARD
1.
Introduction (3 lectures)
Mathematics is very exact. You should develop the habit of readingyour own mathematics and checking that it says what was intended.The symbols you use all have exact meanings. In particular, avoidmuddling up the following three things:
‘equals’:
A
=
B
means that
A
and
B
are identical;
‘implies’:
A
=
B
means that
A
implies
B
(that is, it meansthat whenever
A
is true, then
B
must be true; it does notrequire that
A
is true);
‘therefore’:
A
B
means
A
is true, therefore
B
is true.It will help you to write accurate mathematics if you try and write incomplete sentences – this may feel artificial at first but will make yourown thinking more clear. One good way to check that your mathemat-ics makes sense is to read it through afterwards.1.1.
Algebra.
Algebra begins with the idea that we can go beyondarithmetic by letting
letters 
represent other things. This allows usto make statements in a very convenient form, and prove statementsabout infinitely many different things in one go. In this section, letters
a,b,c,...
will denote real numbers.1.1.1.
Powers.
For
n
1,
a
n
=
a
×
a
×···×
a
  
n
times
is
a
multiplied by itself 
n
times or
a
raised to the
n
th power. In this
Example:
7
3
= 7
×
7
×
7 = 343
expression,
a
is the
base 
and
n
is the
exponent
. The most importantproperties of raising to powers (or
exponentiation
) are:
a
m
×
a
n
=
a
m
+
n
;
Example:
2
3
×
2
2
= 2
5
a
1
=
a
for any value of 
a
;
for
a
= 0,
a
0
= 1;
(
a
m
)
n
=
a
mn
;
a
n
=
1
a
n
.
Example:
2
3
=
18
You cannot combine exponentials with different bases and exponents,but you can combine them if the base is the same (we have seen that
a
m
×
a
n
=
a
m
+
n
) or if the exponent is the same:
a
m
×
b
m
= (
a
×
b
)
m
.
The inverse operation of ‘raise to the
n
th power’ is ‘take the
n
th root’,so
Example:
27
1
/
3
= 3
a
1
/n
=
n
a.
 
OB-81 LECTURE NOTES (FIRST HALF OF COURSE) 3
Notice that this means
n
a
n
=
a
1
/n
n
=
a
n/n
=
a,
which is reassuring. Combining all the rules for exponentiation givessome complicated expressions.
Example:
(
6427
)
1
/
3
= (
2764
)
1
/
3
=
27
1
/
3
64
1
/
3
=
34
Expressions involving things that cannot be simplified, like 3 +
2,are usually best left in that form – though you should always try andwrite them in the form
a
+
b
c
. To do this, there is a specific trick:if 
a
+
b
c
appears in the
denominator 
, then multiply by
a
b
ca
b
c
. Thereason this helps is that(
a
+
b
c
)(
a
b
c
) =
a
2
b
2
c,
which does not involve any square roots, so the denominator has beensimplified.
Example 1.1.
First a simple example:11 + 2
3=11 + 2
3
×
1
2
31
2
3=1
2
31
12=
111
+
211
3
.
Then a more involved simplification:3 + 2
51
2
7=3 + 2
51
2
7
×
1 + 2
71 + 2
7=(3 + 2
5)(1 + 2
7)(1
2
7)(1 + 2
7)=3 + 6
7 + 2
5 + 4
351
4
×
7=
19
29
7
227
5
427
35which does not simplify further.
Example 1.2.
Simplify the expression (
3
2)
2
.
Solution: There are several ways to do this. Notice that(
3
2)
2
=1(
3
2)
2
.
First simplify the denominator: we know that(
a
+
b
)
2
=
a
2
+ 2
ab
+
b
2
as shown in Figure1.So taking
a
=
3 and
b
=
2 we get
Notice the notation:
2
·
3
means
2
×
3
(
3
2)
2
= (
3)
2
2
·
2
·
3 + 4 = 7
4
3
.

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