The piston begins to move up, simultaneously completing the job ofpushing the burned exhaust
out of the exhaust port, and compressingthe air-fuel mixture in the cylinder. When the piston reaches the top of thecylinder, the piston is covering two ports, and the air-fuel mixture is highlycompressed. At this point a spark plug, threaded into the combustionchamber, delivers a spark that ignites the mix. The greater the amount ofcompression,the greater the force of the explosion, and the greater thedownward pressure on the piston.The piston is forced downward and transfers the force through the con-necting rod to the crankshaft, turning it. The downward moving pistonalso uncovers the exhaust port, then the intake port and again begins the job of compressing the air-fuel mixture in the crankcase, to force it to flowinto the cylinder above.Although most two-cycle engines use the flapper valve, called a reed, inthe crankcase, some engines do not. They have
uncovered by fhe piston, that permits
mixture to flow into thevoid in the crankcase created by the upward moving piston. See 1-3.
FOUR-STROKE CYCLE ENGINE
The four-stroke cycle engine develops one power stroke for every fourmovements of the piston (two up and two down). This type might seem tobe a waste of motion as well as parts, for it requires many more parts.However, it has many advantages, particularly in larger engines wherecompactness is not as significant a factor.The four-stroke engine does not have a reed, and the air-fuel mixturedoes not pass through the crankcase. Instead, there are two valves, as inl-l, one that opens and closes a passage from the carburetor, another thatopens and closes a passage to the exhaust system. The valves are operatedby the camshaft, a shaft with teardrop-shaped lobes that push the valvesopen, and at appropriate times, allow springs to close them. The camshafthas a gear at one end, which meshes with a gear on the crankshaft. Thegear on the camshaft has twice as many teeth as the crankshaft gear, sothat for every complete revolution of the crankshaft, the camshaft turns180 degrees. This means that each valve opens and closes just once duringtwo revolutions of the crankshaft, which is exactly what’s needed for afour-stroke cycle.The valves in the typical four-stroke lawn mower or snow blower en-gine are located in the block. This is an antiquated automotive design, butit’s good enough for mowers and blowers. There are a few four-strokerswith valves in the cylinder head, a popular automotive design, shown inl-4. In this case the’camshaft lobes push on a long rod, called a
which pivots a see-saw-like part called a rocker arm.
l-4. Here an overhead valve
opened as the cam lobe bears up
and push rod,and therby
the rocker arm. Whenthe lobe rotates beyond the
thespring pulls the valve up (to closed
This tips the rocker arm backVALVE LIFTER
The operation of any four-stroke cycle engine, regardless of valve loca-tion, is the same. Let’s look at 1-5, with the piston going down in what iscalled the intake stroke.The dropping of the piston creates a void in the cylinder, and the cam-shaft opens the intake valve. Air rushes through the carburetor to fill thatvoid, pulling fuel droplets with it, into the cylinder. When the piston isnear the bottom of the cylinder, the camshaft closes the intake valve.The piston begins rising, and when it reaches the top, it has compressedthe air-fuel mixture into the little recess above the piston, the combustion