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Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System

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Published by angel_maui
Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular System

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Published by: angel_maui on Mar 01, 2010
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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Understanding the Heart.
Anatomy And Physiology
Normal Anatomy: Microscopic
 – 
Consists of Three layers- epicardium, myocardium andendocardium
 – 
The epicardium covers the outer surface of the heart
 – 
The myocardium is the middle muscular layer of the heart
 – 
The endocardium lines the chambers and the valves
 – 
The layer that covers the heart is the PERICARDIUM
 – 
There are two parts- parietal and visceral pericardium
 – 
The space between the two pericardial layers is the pericardialspaceThe Layers of the Heart WallEpicardium(visceralpericardium)
 – 
Essential layer of the heart
 – 
Coronary arteries are found in this layerMyocardium
 – 
Middle and thickest layer of the heart(CBQ)
 – 
Responsible for contraction of the heartEndocardium
 – 
Innermost layer of the heart
 – 
Lines the inside of the myocardium
 – 
Covers the heart valvesMyocardial Cell TypesKinds of Cardiac CellsWhere FoundPrimaryFunctionPrimaryPropertyMyocardialcellsMyocardiumContractionandRelaxationContractilitySpecializedcells of theelectricalconductionsystemElectricalconductionsystemGenerationandconduction of electricalimpulsesAutomaticityConductivity
Normal Anatomy: Gross
 – 
The heart is located in the LEFT side of the mediastinum
How the heart works.
-
The heart and circulation.
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The heart as a pump.
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Blood supply to the heart - the coronary arteries.
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The heart valves.
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The heart is a muscular pump.
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Circulating blood carries oxygen from the lungs andnutrients from the liver.
 
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
The heart also has four chambers- two atria and two ventricles
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The Left atrium and the right atrium
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The left ventricle and the right ventricleThe heart chambers are guarded by valves
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The atrio-ventricular valves- Tricuspid and bicuspid
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The semi-lunar valves- Pulmonic and aortic valvesThe Valves of the HeartValve TypeNameLocationAtrio-ventricular(AV)TricuspidSeparates rightatrium and rightventricleMitral (Bicuspid)Separates leftatrium and leftventricleSemilunarPulmonicBetween rightventricle andpulmonary arteryAorticBetween leftventricle and aortaThe Heart has Four one-way Valves:
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Aortic Valve.
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Mitral Valve.
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Pulmonary Valve.
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Tricuspid Valve.
 
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
The Blood supply of the heart comes from the Coronaryarteries
-
Right coronary artery
-
Left coronary artery
The Coronary Arteries
Coronary Artery andits BranchesPortion of MyocardiumSuppliedPortion of Conduction SystemSuppliedRight
Posteriordescending
Rightmargin (AVnodal)
Right atrium
Inferior wallof rightventricle
½ anteriorsurface of leftventricle
AV node (90%of population)
SA node ( >55%) Bundleof His
Posteriordivision of leftbundle branchLeft
Anteriordescending(LAD)
Circumflex (LCX)
Anteriorsurface of leftventricle
Left atrium
Lateral wall of left ventricle
Part of rightventricle
AV node (10%)
SA node (45%)
All bundlebranches
-
The heart itself must receive enough oxygenated blood.
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Blood is supplied to the heart through the coronaryarteries, two main branches which originate just above theaortic valve. 
The venous drainage of the heart
1.Cardiac veins2.Coronary sinus
Cardio physiology
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Conduction system
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Cardiac (heart) sounds
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Heart rate and Blood pressure
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Cardiac cycle
The main functions of this system are:
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to transport oxygen, hormones and nutrients to thetissues
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and to transport waste products to the lungs and kidneysfor excretion
The CONDUCTING SYSTEM OF THE HEART
Consists of the1.SA node- the pacemaker2.AV node- slowest conduction3.Bundle of His – branches into the Right and the Leftbundle branch4.Purkinje fibers- fastest conduction
The Heart: Physiology
1.The intrinsic conduction system causes the heart muscleto depolarize in one direction2.The rate of depolarization is around 75 beats per minute3.The SA node sets the pace of the conduction

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