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Laboratory Result and Interpretation

Laboratory Result and Interpretation

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Published by tzuquino Emz

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Published by: tzuquino Emz on Mar 01, 2010
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“Result and Interpretation of the different BLOOD TESTS”LIVERTotal Protein
(TP) - A rough measure of the total amount of serum protein in your body. Protein measurements can reflect not onlyliver disease, but nutritional state, kidney disease, and many other conditions as well. If the total protein result is abnormal, further testsmust be performed to identify which protein fraction, and then which specific protein, is abnormal.
- The most abundant protein found in Blood plasma, representing 40% to 66% of the total protein in your body. Albuminkeeps water inside your Blood vessels. Reduced levels of albumin may reflect a variety of conditions, including primary liver disease,increased breakdown of macromolecules resulting from tissue damage or inflammation, malnutrition, malabsorption syndromes, andrenal diseases.
- Globulins are a diverse group of proteins in the Blood that grouped together represent the second most common proteins(after albumin) in the Bloodstream. Globulin is actually made up of about 60 different important proteins and is one of the componentsthat help to fight infections. Some of the proteins in this group play an important role in Blood clotting. An elevation in the level of serumglobulin can indicate the presence of cirrhosis of the liver.
(Alanine Aminotransferase) - Found mainly in the liver, the activity of this enzyme is measured in Blood plasma. Damagefrom alcohol, strenuous exercise, some medications and a number of diseases can cause high test values. Elevated levels of thisenzyme can be an indication of viral hepatitis and other forms of liver disease.
Aspartate Aminotransferase - An increase of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, formerly referred to as "SGOT") is found inany condition involving necrosis of hepatocytes, myocardial cells, or skeletal muscle cells. As in AST/SGPT, damage from alcohol,strenuous exercise, some medications and a number of diseases can cause high test values. Decreased serum AST is of no knownclinical significance.
Bilirubin, Total
- The coloring agent in the Blood that makes the plasma (serum) part of your Blood yellow. When the bilirubin level isvery high for an extended period of time, the whites of your eyes and even your skin may become yellow (jaundice). Bilirubin comesfrom the breakdown of old red cells in the Blood. Total bilirubin is increased most commonly in liver disease (hepatitis, malignancy,advanced cirrhosis) and due to obstruction of the biliary system (gall stones, pancreatic cancer). Severe haemolytic anaemia can causemoderate increases which are almost entirely made up of the unconjugated fraction. Moderate to marked hyperbilirubinaemia is seen insome neonates especially if premature and can be caused by inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism or transport is a small number of cases.
Bilirubin, Direct
- A specific form of bilirubin (conjugated) that is formed in the liver and excreted in bile. Under normal conditions verylittle of this form of bilirubin is found in the Blood. In liver disease, however, this form of bilirubin enters the Bloodstream so that even aslightly high level may indicate a problem with the liver cells, an obstruction of the bile ducts, or impairment of liver cell function.
Alkaline Phosphatase
- An enzyme found in all body tissue, but primarily in bones, bile ducts and in the liver. A high level may indicatebone, liver, or bile duct disease. Some drugs may also cause increased levels. Expected values are higher for those who are growing(children and pregnant women) or when damage to bones or liver has occurred or with a gallstone condition. Low values are probablynot significant.
 / ElectrolytesBUN
(Blood Urea Nitrogen) - A waste product, derived from protein breakdown, produced in the liver and excreted by way of thekidneys. High values may mean that the kidneys are not working as well as they should. BUN is also elevated by Blood loss,dehydration, high protein diets and/or strenuous exercise which may temporarily and artificially raise levels. A low BUN level may be theresult of liver disease, a low protein diet, pregnancy, or drinking an extreme amount of water. Normal BUN levels should be betweeneight and 23 milligrams per deciliter of Blood (mg/dL); normal creatinine levels should be between 0.7 and 1.3 mg/dL.
- A waste product largely from muscle metabolism (breakdown). Concentration of creatinine in the Blood depends upon theamount of muscle that you have and the ability of your kidneys to excrete creatinine. High values, especially with high BUN levels, mayindicate problems with the kidneys. Because of its insensitivity in detecting early renal failure, the creatinine clearance is significantlyreduced before any rise in serum creatinine occurs. The renal impairment may be due to intrinsic renal lesions, decreased perfusion of the kidney, or obstruction of the lower urinary tract. Low values are generally not considered significant.
BUN/Creatinine Ratio
- By comparing the BUN level in the Blood to the creatinine level, your physician can determine if a high BUNlevel is caused by kidney disease, dehydration, or by gastrointestinal bleeding.
- Controlled in the Blood by the parathyroid glands and the kidneys, calcium is one of the most important elements in thebody. Virtually all of the calcium in your body is found in bone (99%). That other 1% is very important for proper Blood clotting, nerve,and cell and enzyme activity. The parathyroid gland is the main regulator of calcium in the body. An elevated calcium can be due tomedication, inherited disorders of calcium handling in the kidneys, bone disease, or excess parathyroid gland activity or vitamin D. Lowcalcium can be due to malnutrition, drugs and certain metabolic disorders and should be re-evaluated.
- An electrolyte regulated by the kidneys and adrenal glands. This element plays an important role in the water/salt balance inyour body. There are numerous causes of high and low sodium levels, but the most common causes of low sodium are diuretic usage,and excessive water intake in patients with heart or liver disease. A high level can be caused by an excessive intake of salt or even aninsufficient intake of water. Sodium levels should be between 136 and 144 millimoles per liter of Blood (mmol/L).
- Controlled very carefully by the kidneys, potassium is an electrolyte found primarily inside cells. Its role is to maintainwater balance inside the cells and to help in the transmission of nerve impulses. It is very important for the proper functioning of thenerves and muscles, particularly the heart. Any value outside the expected range, high or low, requires immediate medical evaluation.This is especially important if you are taking a diuretic (water pill) or heart pill (Digitalis, Lanoxin, etc.) A low potassium level can causemuscle weakness and heart problems. A high potassium level can be found in kidney disease or in over ingestion of potassiumsupplements. Potassium levels should be between 3.6 and 5.1 mmol/L.
- Important to the function of nerves, muscles, and cells. Chloride is an electrolyte regulated by the kidneys and adrenalglands. It is usually associated with a high or low level of sodium or potassium. Increase in serum chloride is seen in dehydration, renaltubular acidosis, acute renal failure, diabetes insipidus, prolonged diarrhea, and some other rare conditions or medications. Somedrugs cause decreased chloride levels. Levels should be between 99 and 108 mmol/L.
- Reflects the acid status of your Blood. Abnormally high or low levels may indicate severe problems if you have had prolongedvomiting, are on lots of fluid pills or if you have out of control diabetes. Normal values for CO2 in Blood range from 20 to 29milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).
Total Cholesterol
- Cholesterol in itself is not all bad, in fact, our bodies need a certain amount of this substance tofunction properly. When the level gets too high, however, serious problems can result. Levels of 200 or more areconsidered too high for good health. Levels of 240 and above are considered very high risk, and may indicate the need for cholesterol lowering medication. A low fat diet and regular exercise are recommended. As the level of Blood cholesterolincreases, so does the possibility of plugging the arteries due to cholesterol plaque build-up. Such a disease process iscalled "hardening of the arteries" or atherosclerosis. When the arteries feeding the heart become plugged, a heart attackmay occur. If the arteries that go to the brain are affected, then the result is a stroke.
HDL Cholesterol
- (High Density Lipoprotein) A ‘good cholesterol’ as it protects against heart disease by helping removeexcess cholesterol deposited in the arteries. High levels seem to be associated with low incidence of coronary heartdisease. Latest guidelines recommend a HDL >45. If your level is below 30, it can signal a significant risk of early heartdisease.
- Fat carried in the Blood. Normal triglycerides should be between 50 and 200 mg/dL. Triglyceride levelsover 150 mg/dl may be associated with problems other than heart disease. If levels exceed 500 mg/dL, the situation isconsidered acute. The ways to lower triglycerides are: 1) weight reduction, if overweight; 2) reduce animal fats in the diet:eat more fish; 3) take certain medications that your physician can prescribe such as Lopid, Tricor or Niacin; 4) get regular aerobic exercise; and, 5) decrease alcohol and sugar consumption. Alcohol and sugar are not fats, but the body canconvert them into fats, then dump those fats into your Blood stream. High triglycerides are also associated withpancreatitis.
LDL Cholesterol
- (Low Density Lipoprotein) Considered "bad cholesterol" because cholesterol deposits form in thearteries when LDL levels are high. An LDL level of less than 130 is recommended; 100 is ideal; values greater than 160are considered high risk and should be followed up by your physician. Those persons who have established coronary or vascular disease or Diabetes may be instructed by their doctor to get their LDL Cholesterol well below 100. You shouldask your doctor which LDL target he or she wants for you.
VLDL Cholesterol
- (Very Low Density Lipoprotein) A type of cholesterol found in the Blood that is considered to be themost dangerous form of lipoprotein. They carry the least amount of protein and the most amount of fat. They also stick toartery walls and contribute to plaque build-up.
- An enzyme which is very useful for diagnosing diseases of the heart and skeletal muscle. This enzyme is thefirst to be elevated after a heart attack (three to four hours). If CPK is high in the absence of heart muscle injury, this is astrong indication of skeletal muscle disease. Sometimes this is checked to monitor possible muscle irritation fromcholesterol lowering drugs.
- The enzyme present in all human cells. Anything that damages cells, including Blood drawing itself, will raise

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