An overhead conductor suspendedbetween towers assumes the shape of acatenary curve. Usually, it is convenientwithout consequent error, to regard thecurve as a parabola.The sag f and the span P are given by theformula :0.981 mp
(1)8 TWithf= sag (m)m= linear mass of conductor (kg/m)P= span (m)T= load ont he conductor (daN)examp: AAC ASTER 570Span550 mSag12 mdetermine the load on the conductor T0.981 m P2f =–––––––––––8f m = 1.574 kg/m0.981 x 1.574T=–––––––––––––= 4021 daN8.12The rating tensile strength of ASTER 570is 18 360 daN. in these conditions, theconductor is loaded on 21.9% of its ratedtensile strength.(*)
heat due to Foucault’effect is negligible.
Variations of load with the sag is given forthis conductor in the table :ASTER 570 – Span = 500 mf(m)3456T160841206396508042(daN)f(m)7891020T68936031536148252412(daN)The less the sag, the greater the load onthe conductor.Length of the conductorBetween the towers, the length of theconductor L(m) is given by the formula :8f2L= P +–––3PSpanP = 500 mSagf = 12 mL= 500,766
For an installation with a Single span of aconductor, you need a length of conductorof L+300 m and the 300 m will be lost(dead length).
Variations of sag withweather conditions
Some factors increase the sag after initialstringing :–Thermal expansion of the conductorbecause of increased temperature abovethat during stringing.–Increase of conductor apparent weightbecause of wind, ice load, and so on.–Creep of conductor.The line designer must consider all thesefactors to determine initial sag and so, torespect the minimum clearance betweenthe conductor and the ground.
Every day stress (E.D.S.)
This is the load on the conductor, everyday This load expressed in percentage of rated tensile strength of the conductor.Weather condition are :TemperatureT= 15OCWindV= 0To write EDS =20% explains that, at 15
Cwithout wind, the load on the conductoris equal to 20% of the rated tensilestrength.example : ASTER 570Rated tensile strength=18360 daNTemperature=15OCWithout windSpan=500 mEDS=20%T= 18360 x 0.20=3672 daN0.981 m P2f =––––––––––8 T0.981 x 1,574 x (500)2f =––––––––––––––––––––– =13.14m8 x 3672In a span of 500 m length, an ASTER 570conductor with a sag of 13.14 m, at 15
Cwithout wind, has an EDS of 20%.
This is the parameter of the geometriccurve of the conductor, the coefficient of the catenary equation.Its expression is given byp
(2)8 f Pa= Parameter (m)P= Span (m)f= Sag (m)examp :ASTER 570P = 500 m–f = 13.14 m.(500)2Pa =–––––––––2378 m8 x 13.14Parameter is : 2378 mWhen the parameter is known, sag iscalculated with (2) and load with (1).
The safety factor is the ratio between therated tensile strength of conductor andthe effective load on conductoroverloaded by wind and ice.Each country has established specificweather conditions to determine thesafety factors.In India, for instance, the safety factor isgenerally 2.5To avoid vibrations, it is generally preferredto load a conductor at averagetemperature without wind, on 16 to 22%of its rated tensile strength.
INTRODUCTION TOOVERHEAD CONDUCTORS
In the line design process, the most crucialdecision often involves selecting the phaseand ground conductors. Conductorsusually comprise 30% of the material andlabour costs of a line. The selection of conductors is critical since the wind andtension loads that supporting structuresmust withstand are dependent on the sizeand type of conductors used.Phase and ground conductors normallyconsist of multiple strands of aluminium,copper, and/or steel. Due to the strandinginduced helical form of the individualstrands, conductors exhibit lowercomposite rated breaking strength (4 to11%), greater weight and higher resistanceper unit length of conductor (2 to 4%) thanwould be obtained, were all thecomponent wires parallel alone.Selection of the conductor depends uponfactors, such as power requirements,terrain, ambient conditions, cost of theconductor and supporting structures,governmental and environmentalconstraints, strength and electricalresistance, stress-strain relationship,thermal characteristics and inductive andcapacitive reactances. Array of conductorsranging standard AAC, AAAC, ACAR andACSR have been developed to meet thevarying needs of the electrical utilityengineer.
The most common type of phase conductors foroverhead transmission lines is composed of strands of relatively pure aluminium ; an aluminium alloy, and steelcombined. Copper conductors are rarely used todaybecause of their inferior conductivity-to-weight andstrength-to-weight ratios and high costs.
CopperStrands of CopperACSRStrands of aluminium with steel coreAACStrands of AluminiumAAACStrands of Alloy AluminiumACARStrands of Aluminium,Aluminium alloy reinforcedAAASRStrands of Aluminium alloy,steel reinforced.GSWStrands of Galvanised Steel
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