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Renewable Power Generation

Renewable Power Generation

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Published by: sajidsfa on Mar 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Renewable power generation strategies
Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that arereplenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from thesun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in thedefinition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean,hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels andhydrogen derived from renewable resources.Each of these sources has unique characteristics which influence howand where they are used
Renewable resource
Anatural resourcequalifies as a
renewable resource
if its stock(quantity) can increase over time.Natural resources which qualify as renewable resources are, forexample,oxygen,fresh water,solar energy,timber, andbiomass. But they can becomenon-renewable resourcesif more of them is usedthan nature can reproduce in the same time at that place. For exampleground water may be removed from anaquiferat a greater rate thanthat of new water flowing to that aquifer. Removal of water from thepore spaces may cause permanent compaction (subsidence) thatcannot be reversed. Humanconsumptionand use atsustainablelevels primarily uses renewable resources versusnon-renewable resources.Renewable resources may also include goodscommoditiessuch aswood, paper and leather.Gasoline,coal,natural gas,dieseland other commodities that come fromfossil fuelsare non-renewable. Some commodities, likeplastics  and diesel, are mostly made from fossil fuel but ways have beendeveloped forbiodegradable plasticandbiodieselmade from renewable resources
Wind power
Airflows can be used to runwind turbines. Modern wind turbines rangefrom around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines withrated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common forcommercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cubeof the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases
dramatically Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, suchas offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for windfarms. Typicalcapacity factorsare 20-40%, with values at the upperend of the range in particularly favourable sites.Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believedto be five times total current global energy production, or 40 timescurrent electricity demand. This could require large amounts of land tobe used for wind turbines, particularly in areas of higher windresources. Offshore resources experience mean wind speeds of ~90%greater than that of land, so offshore resources could contributesubstantially more energy.This number could also increase with higheraltitude ground-based orairborne wind turbinesWind poweris renewable and produces nogreenhouse gasesduring operation, such ascarbon dioxideandmethane.
 TheHoover Damwhen completed in 1936 was both the world's largestelectric-power generating station and the world's largestconcrete structure.Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800timesdenser than air,even a slow flowing stream of water, ormoderate seaswell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. Thereare many forms of water energy:
Hydroelectricenergy is a term usually reserved for large-scalehydroelectric dams. Examples are theGrand Coulee DaminWashington State and theAkosombo Damin Ghana.
Micro hydrosystems arehydroelectric powerinstallations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. They are often used inwater rich areas as aremote-area power supply(RAPS). Thereare many of these installations around the world, includingseveral delivering around 50 kW in theSolomon Islands.
Damless hydrosystems derivekinetic energyfrom rivers and oceans without using a dam.
Ocean energydescribes all the technologies to harnessenergy  from theoceanand thesea. This includesmarine current power, ocean thermal energy conversion, andtidal power.
Solar energy
Monocrystallinesolar cell.
Solar energy is the energy derived from thesunthrough the form of solar radiation.Solar poweredelectrical generation relies on photovoltaicsandheat engines. A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling throughsolar architecture,daylighting,solar hot water,solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.Solar technologies are broadly characterized as eitherpassive solaroractive solardepending on the way they capture, convert and distributesolar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaicpanels andsolar thermalcollectors to harness the energy. Passivesolar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selectingmaterials with favorablethermal massor light dispersing properties,and designing spaces thatnaturally circulate air.
Information on pump regardingethanol fuelblend up to 10%,California.Liquid biofuel is usually either bioalcohol such as bioethanol or an oilsuch as biodiesel.Bioethanolis analcoholmade byfermentingthe sugar components of  plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops.With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, suchas trees and grasses, are also used as feedstocks for ethanolproduction. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form,but it is usually used as agasolineadditive to increase octane andimprove vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and inBrazil.Biodieselis made fromvegetable oils,animal fatsor recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it isusually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates,carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles.Biodiesel is produced fromoilsor fats usingtransesterificationand is the most common biofuel in Europe.Biofuels provided 1.8% of the world's transport fuel in 2008.
Geothermal energy

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