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Ratio & Proportion

Ratio & Proportion

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Published by Mbatutes
Theory and exercise on Ration & Proportion Chapter. For those who are preparing for MBA exams
Theory and exercise on Ration & Proportion Chapter. For those who are preparing for MBA exams

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Published by: Mbatutes on Mar 02, 2010
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Ratio and Proportion
We use numbers in everyday life quite frequently.One of the uses of numbers is for comparison.When two things of same kind are attributed numerical values,we are able tocompare them.This comparison is expressed in phreases like ‘is greater than’,’is multipleof’ etc.Let us take an example , a familiar situation in which Vignesh scored 17 runs whileVinay amassed 51 runs in an inning of cricket.Then we say,1) Vinay scored 34 runs more than Vignesh or Vignesh scored 34 runs less than Vinay or 2) Vinay scored three times as many runs as Vignesh or we say that Vignesh scored onlyone third of the runs scored by Vinay.When we compare in the way as (2), we are finding the ratio between the two numbers.Inshort,the ratio between two quantities ‘a’ and ‘b’( where b>0 is the value of fraction a/bin its lowest terms)Let us revise a few things about ratio.To find the ratio of the first number to the second one ,we find ‘what multiple of secondnumber is the first number?’ and this is done by dividing the first number by the secondone.For example, the ratio of 17 to 51 =17/51=1/3The ratio of 50 to 30=50/30=5/3The phrase, ‘the ratio of 17 to 51’ is written as ’17:51’ and read as ’17 is to 51’While comparing two quantities in terms of ratio, we must bear in mind the following:1)The two quantities must be of same kind.2)The units of measurement of the two quantities must be the same.3)As the ratio denotes how many times is one quantity of the other, it is a purenumber( without any unit of measurement)For example4m : 80 cm=400cm: 80cm=5:11hr 30 min : 2 hrs 15 min=90 min:135min=2:3The numbers involved in a ratio are called its ‘terms’www.MBAtutes.com1
Ratio and ProportionThat expression of a ratio,both of whose terms do not have common factor other thanone, is called the ratio in its lowest terms.Thus by cancelling the common factor of thetwo terms 105 and 135, we obtain the lowest form f the ratio 105:135 as 7:9.
Percentage is a special kind of a ratio . it is a ratio having its second term 100.
Please note down certain important aspects of ratios.1)when we consider the ratio of two numbers as a:b ,then the first number need not be ‘a’ and the second number need not be ‘b’.They can be ka and kb, where k isany non zero multiple of a and b. 2) Two ratios a : b and c: d (a/b and c/d) are said to be equal if a x d = b x c.2) If two ratios are a:b and b:c, they are briefly written as a:b:c.For example ,whenwe say that the ratio of measures of angle A angle B and angle C of triangle ABCare three is to four is to five( 3 :4 :5)We really mean to say thatm< A : m<B=3:4 and m<B : m<C= 4:5.That is, we write the ratio 3:4 and 4:5 in brief as 3:4:5.Also ,when we say that ratio of four numbers is a : b : c : d, then we mean that theratio of three pairs of numbers taken in order are a : b ,b : c , c : d.
Proportion is a very familiar and an important mathematical concept.Let us try tounderstand this.Suppose a fruitseller tells you that the price of oranges is Rs.20 a dozen,that is,Rs20 for 12 orangesIf you want to buy six oranges,how do you determine their cost?As the number of oranges is half of one dozen,their cost also has to behalf.Therefore,the cost of 6 oranges is half of rs.20 i.e. Rs 10. In other words,youthink that the cost of oranges in proportion to their number.Mathematically,proportion is defined as follows:When a/b=c/d, the numbers a,b,c,d are in proportion.When a,b,c,d are in proportion ,they are respectively called the first, thesecond,the third and the fourth propotionals. a and d are called the extremes,while b and c are called the means.www.MBAtutes.com2
Ratio and ProportionFor example,14/21=18/27Therefore 14,21,18,27 are in proportion. 14 and 27 are the extremes while 21 and18 are the means.You know that when a/b=c/d,then the products a x d and b x c are equal. So whenfour numbers are in proportion, the product of extremes is equal to the product of means.The concept of proportion need not be restricted to only two equal ratios. It may be extended thus.If a/b=c/d=e/f…..,then a,b,c,d,e… are said to be in proportion.For example,5/9=20/36=15/27. So 5,9,20,36,15,27 are in proportion. Continued proportionConsider the ratios 25:20 and 20:16. These ratios are equal . So, the numbers25,20,20,16 are in proportion. The means of this proportion are equal. So, we say,the numbers25,20,16 are in continued proportion.Generally ,when a / b = b / c then a,b,c are in continued proportion,also,whena/b=b/c, we get b
= a x cWhen a, b, c are in continued proportion ,b is called the ‘geometric mean’ or ‘mean proportional’ between a and c.From the above discussion, we get four equivalent statements.(1)a/b=b/c(2)b
=a x c(3) a,b,c are in continued proportion and(4) b is the geometric mean of a and c.The concept of continued proportion is extended thus.If a/b=b/c=c/d=……then a,b,c,d….. are said to be in continued proportion. For example,the ratios 8:12,12:18,18:27 are equal. So the numbers 8,12,18,27 are in continued proportion.www.MBAtutes.com3

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