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Common Emitter Amplifier

Common Emitter Amplifier

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Published by hemanshu_abbey

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Published by: hemanshu_abbey on Mar 03, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 The amplifier circuit shown below uses what is commonly called "VoltageDivider Biasing".Biasing is very important in amplifier design as it establishes the correctoperating point of the amplifier ready to receive signals, thereby reducingany distortion to the input signal. This type of biasing arrangement iscommonly used in the design of bipolar transistor amplifier circuits andwhich greatly reduces the effects of varying Beta, (β) by holding the Basebias at a constant steady voltage allowing for best stability. The quiescentBase voltage (V
) is determined by the potential divider network formedby the two resistors, R1 and R2 and the power supply voltage VCC.NOTE: The emitter resistance performs 2 functions: RE1 influences the ACvoltage gain and RE1+RE2 controls the DC bias. Remember that
RE2 in thecircuit will not be considered during AC analysis as it gets bypassed by CE.
STEPS INVOLVED:1.Draw the schematic as shown above and run a Transient analysis for500us. Refer to below calculations
Replace the capacitors with open circuits.RE = 600+600 = 1.2K, Take β = 180 for calculation
= 7.33K 
= 4V
= 14.69uA
= 2.64mA
= 4.08V
Coupling Capacitors
In common emitter amplifier circuits, capacitors C1 and C2 are used asCoupling Capacitors to separate the AC signals from the DC bias. Thisensures that the bias condition set up for the circuit to operate correctly isnot effected by any additional amplifier stages, as the capacitors will onlypass AC signals and block any DC component. The output AC signal isthen superimposed on the biasing of the following stages. Also a bypasscapacitor, CE is included in the Emitter leg circuit. This capacitor is anopen circuit component for DC bias meaning that the biasing currents andvoltages are not affected by the addition of the capacitor maintaining agood Q-point stability. However, this bypass capacitor short circuits theEmitter resistor RE2 at high frequency signals increasing the voltage gainto its maximum. Generally, the value of the bypass capacitor, CE ischosen to provide a reactance of at most, 1/10th the value of RE at thelowest operating signal frequency.
or the AC emitter resistance is given by 26mV/I
where I
ascalculated earlier as approx 2.64mA. So R
= 9.84Ω
With minimal loading (RL=100K), Voltage gain = - RC/(RE1 + R
) =2.95
 You can Increase the gain by choosing a smaller RE1 such as 300 ohms. The gain should increase to -1800 / 300 = -6.But don’t run a simulationyet! Maintain the same bias condition by increasing RE2 to 900 ohms sothat RE1 + RE2 = 1200 ohms. Run a new simulation. You will obtain thebelow output waveform

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