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Neuron Motor Perifer

Neuron Motor Perifer

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Published by: nunualone on Mar 03, 2010
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12/06/2012

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SKELETAL MUSCLEDjoko PrakosaDepartment of Anatomy, Embryology & AnthropologyFaculty of Medicine Gadjah Mada University
One characteristic of animal including man is its ability to move. Movement is carriedout by specialized cells called muscle fibers, the latent energy of which is, or can be,controlled by the nervous system. Muscle fibers are classified as skeletal or striated,cardiac, and smooth. They are all derived from
myocyte
(
myo-
and
 sarco-
are frequentlyused in naming structures associated with muscle).
Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers are long, multinucleated cells having a characteristic cross-striated appearance under the microscope. These cells are supplied by motor fibers fromcells in the central nervous system. The skeletal muscle fibers size tend to be consistentwithin a given muscle, but in different muscles may range from 10 – 100
µ
in diameter and from milimeters to many centimeters in length.Skeletal muscles are sometimes called
voluntary
muscles, owing to the fact that theycan usually be controlled voluntarily. However, many of the actions of skeletal muscleare automatic, and the actions of some of them are reflex and only to a limited extentunder voluntary control.
General Characteristics
Most muscles are discrete structures that cross one or more joints and, by contracting,can cause movements at these joints. Exceptions are certain subcutaneous muscles (e.g.facial muscles) that move or wrinkle the skin or close orifices, the muscles that move theeyes, and other muscles associated with the respiratory and digestive systems.Each muscle fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath, the
endomysium.
Muscle fibers are grouped into fasciculi, each of which is enclosed by a connective tissuesheath termed
 perimysium.
A muscle as a whole is composed of many fasciculi and issurrounded by
epimysium
, which is closely associated with fascia.
Origin and Insertion
Most muscles are attached either directly or by means of their tendons or aponeurosesto bones, cartilages, ligaments, or fasciae. Other muscles are attached to organs, such asthe eyeball, and still other are attachjed to skin. When a muscle contracts and shortens,one of its attachments usually remains fixed and the other one moves. The fixedattachments is called the
origin
, the mobile one the
insertion
. However, the terms originand insertion are convenient merely for purposes of description. Very often theanatomical insertion remains fixed and the origin moves. Sometimes both ends remainfixed; the muscle then stabilizeds a joint.
Shape and Fiber Architecture
It is possible to attempt a classification of muscles based on their general shape andthe predominant orientation of their fibers relative to the direction of pull. Muscles with
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fibers that are largely parallel to the line of pull vary in form from flat, short andquadrilateral (e.g. thyrohyoid) to long and strap-like (e.g. sternohyoid, sartorius). In afusiform muscle, the fibers may be close to parallel in the “belly”, but converge to atendon at one or both ends. Where fibers are oblique to the line of pull, muscles may betriangular (e.g. temporalis, adductor longus) or pennate (=”feather-like”) in construction.The latter vary in complexity from unipennate (e.g. flexor pollicis longus), and bipennate(e.g. rectus femoris, dorsal interossei) to multipennate (e.g. deltoid). In some muscles thefibers pass obliquely between deep and superficial aponeuroses, in a kind of ‘unipennate’form (e.g. soleus). In other sites muscle fibers start from the walls of osteofascialcompartment, and converge obliquely on a central tendon in circumpennate fashion (e.g.tibialis anterior). Some muscles have a spiral or twisted arrangement. Some musclesspiral around a bone (e.g. supinator). Another type of spiral arrangement sometimesreffered to as cruciate, that have two or more planes of fibers arranged in differingdirections. Sternocleidomastoid, masseter and adductor magnus are partially spiral andcruciate.
Naming of Muscles
The names of muscles usually indicate some structural or functional feature. A namemay indicate shape, e.g., trapezius, rhomboid, or gracilis. A name may refer to location,e.g., tibialis posterior. The number of heads of origin is indicated by the terms biceps,triceps, and quadriceps. Action is reflected in terms such as levator scapulae and extensor digitorum. Action and shape are combined in the term flexor digitorum profundus.In anatomical text, individual muscles are usually described according their origin,insertion, nerve supply, and action.
Blood Supply to Skeletal Muscles
Muscles are supplied by adjacent vessels. The pattern of supply varies. Some musclesare supplied by vessels that arise from a single stem and enter at one end of the muscle or in the middle of the belly. Other muscles are supplied by a succession of anastomosingvessels. The major source of artery enters on the deep surface, frequently in closeassociation with the principal vein and nerve, which together form a neurovascular hilum.The arteries that enter a muscle branch repeatedly within the connective tissue framework of the muscle, with the smaller arteries and arterioles ramifying in the perimysial septaand giving off capillaries that run in the endomysium. Fibers that are involved insustained activities –such as posture- are serve by a denser capillary network than fiberswhich are recruited only infrequently.Veins branch in a similar way, forming venous territories that correspond closely tothe arterial territories. The veins is equiped by valves. The pressure exerted on valvedintramuscular veins during contraction enables them to function as a ‘muscle pump’, promoting venous return to the heart.Various experiments, provide evidence for the existence in muscle of arteriovenousanastomoses, through which blood can returned directly to the venous system withouthaving traversed the capillaries. The extent to which the muscle capillary bed is perfusedcan thus be varied in accordance with functional demand.
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The lymphatic drainage of muscles commences as capillaries in epimysial and perimysial, but not endomysial sheath. These converge to form large lymphatic vesselswhich accompany the veins, draining to the regional lymh nodes.
Innervation of Skeletal Muscle
Each muscle is supplied by one or more nerves. In the limbs, face and neck there isusually a single nerve, although its axons may correspond to several spinal cord segment.Muscles such as those of the abdominal wall, which originate from several embryonicsegments, are supplied by more than one nerve. In most cases the nerve travels with principal blood vessels as a neurovascular bundle, approaches the muscle near to its leastmobile attachment and enters the deep surface, at a position wich is more or less constantfor each muscle.Muscle nerves contain both motor and sensory components. The major motor component , i.e., the
α
-motor axons (
α
-motoneurons) consist of the large, myelinatedaxons that supply the muscle fibers. In addition, the nerve carries small
γ 
-motoneuron,which innervate the intrafusal muscle fibers of neuromuscular spindle, and fine, non-myelinated autonomic efferents (C fibers), which innervate vascular smooth muscle. Thesensory component consists of the large, myelinated 2A afferents from neuromuscular spindles, the slightly smaller myelinated 2B afferens from the Golgi tendon organs andfine myelineted and non-myelinatedfibers conveying pain and other sensations from freeterminals in the connective tissue sheaths of the muscle.
α
-motor axons branch repeatedly before they lose their myelinated sheaths andterminate near the middle of muscle fibers. These terminals tend to cluster in a narrowzone towards the center of the muscle belly known as the motor point. Clinically, this isthe place on the muscle from which it is easiest to elicit a contraction with stimulatingelectrode.A specialized synapse, the neuromuscular junction, is formed where the terminal branch of an
α
-motor axons contacts the muscle fiber. The axon terminal gives off several short, curling branches over an elliptical area, the motor end plate.The arrival of an action potential at the motor end plate causes acetylcholine (ACh) to be released from storage vesicles into the 30 – 50 nm synaptic cleft that separates nerveending from the sarcolemma. The Ach is rapidly bound by receptor molecules located inthe junctional folds, triggering an almost instataneous increase in the permeability, andhence conductance, of the postsynaptic membrane. This generates a local depolarization(the end plate-potential) whose duration is self limited by voltage dependentconformational changes in the membrane. The activity of the neurotransmetter is rapidlyterminated by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AchE), which is bound to the basementmembrane in the junctional folds. A muscle action potential is generated for each nervousimpulse. The action potential propagates along the length of the muscle fiber at about 5meters per second and spreads into its interior along the T-tubules, initiating contraction.
Motor Units and Motor ControlMotor units and their recruitment
The terminal branches of 
α
-motor axons are normally in a ‘one-to-one’ relationshipwith their muscle fibers. When a motor neuron is excited, an action potential is propagated along the axon and its branches to all of the muscle fibers that it supplies. The
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