SKELETAL MUSCLEDjoko PrakosaDepartment of Anatomy, Embryology & AnthropologyFaculty of Medicine Gadjah Mada University
One characteristic of animal including man is its ability to move. Movement is carriedout by specialized cells called muscle fibers, the latent energy of which is, or can be,controlled by the nervous system. Muscle fibers are classified as skeletal or striated,cardiac, and smooth. They are all derived from
are frequentlyused in naming structures associated with muscle).
Skeletal muscle fibers are long, multinucleated cells having a characteristic cross-striated appearance under the microscope. These cells are supplied by motor fibers fromcells in the central nervous system. The skeletal muscle fibers size tend to be consistentwithin a given muscle, but in different muscles may range from 10 – 100
in diameter and from milimeters to many centimeters in length.Skeletal muscles are sometimes called
muscles, owing to the fact that theycan usually be controlled voluntarily. However, many of the actions of skeletal muscleare automatic, and the actions of some of them are reflex and only to a limited extentunder voluntary control.
Most muscles are discrete structures that cross one or more joints and, by contracting,can cause movements at these joints. Exceptions are certain subcutaneous muscles (e.g.facial muscles) that move or wrinkle the skin or close orifices, the muscles that move theeyes, and other muscles associated with the respiratory and digestive systems.Each muscle fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath, the
Muscle fibers are grouped into fasciculi, each of which is enclosed by a connective tissuesheath termed
A muscle as a whole is composed of many fasciculi and issurrounded by
, which is closely associated with fascia.
Origin and Insertion
Most muscles are attached either directly or by means of their tendons or aponeurosesto bones, cartilages, ligaments, or fasciae. Other muscles are attached to organs, such asthe eyeball, and still other are attachjed to skin. When a muscle contracts and shortens,one of its attachments usually remains fixed and the other one moves. The fixedattachments is called the
, the mobile one the
. However, the terms originand insertion are convenient merely for purposes of description. Very often theanatomical insertion remains fixed and the origin moves. Sometimes both ends remainfixed; the muscle then stabilizeds a joint.
Shape and Fiber Architecture
It is possible to attempt a classification of muscles based on their general shape andthe predominant orientation of their fibers relative to the direction of pull. Muscles with