Copyright © 2009The World Bank Group1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 All rights reserved June 2009The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The World Bank Group encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permissionto reproduce portions of the work promptly.For permission to photocopy or reprint, please send a request with complete information to:Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.222 Rosewood DriveDanvers, MA 01923, USA t. 978-750-8400; f.978-750-4470 www.copyright.com All queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to:The Ofﬁce of the PublisherThe World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433, USA f. 202-522-2422e-mail: email@example.comFIAS, the multi-donor investment climate advisory service managed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) andsupported by the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the World Bank (IBRD), is an integrator of services toimprove the business-enabling environment of member countries. In particular, FIAS advises governments of developing andtransition countries on regulatory simpliﬁcation, investment policy and promotion, and industry-speciﬁc investment climateissues. In its more than 20 years as a donor-funded operation, FIAS has completed over 760 projects in all regions of the world.For more information, visit www.ﬁas.net.The Organizations (IFC, MIGA, and IBRD), through FIAS, endeavor, using their best efforts in the time available, to providehigh quality services hereunder and have relied on information provided to them by a wide range of other sources. However,they do not make any representations or warranties regarding the completeness or accuracy of the information included in thispublication. The ﬁndings, interpretations, and conclusions included in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reﬂect the views of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.Cover photo credits: globe–Patricia Hord Design (also appears on chapter opening pages); photo inserts (left to right)–Robert Achinger; Neil Gould; David Lat; Bazil Raubach.