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Norsk Grammatikk Wide

Norsk Grammatikk Wide

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Published by: Midhat on Mar 03, 2010
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Norwegian Grammar.
1 THE SENTENCE
As in all the other Germanic languages, sentences in Norwegian can bedescribed schematically containing three fields: a prefield, midfield and backfield.The prefield contains only one element. More often than not it is the subject. If the sentence is a question the prefield is empty.The midfield and backfield can be subdivided in three fields each. The word order and content of the subfields is different for the different sentence types.
1.1 WORD ORDER
The basic word order in main clauses in Norwegian is as follows:
Prefield
 
Midfield
 
Backfield
 
Finite Subject 
 
Adverbial Verb Object Adverbia
 Han ha
 
kanskje lest denne boka i forrige uke.
hehas maybereadthis book.thein last wee 
 
 I forrige uke har han kanskje lest denne boka.
 In last weekhashemaybereadthis book.the
 Har du kanskje lest denne boka?
 Haveyoumaybereadthis book.the
Immediately following the prefield in the midfield is the subfield Finite whichcontains the tensed main verb and the auxiliary verb. Then there is a position for the subject, if it is not placed in the prefield. The final element in the midfield is anoptional adverbial. In the first position in the backfield we find the verb. Nextfollows the object, and finally an optional additional adverbial.
1.2 THE PREFIELD
In Norwegian almost all sentence elements can be in the prefield. Typically onewill find the subject here, but adverbs also frequently occupy this position, andmore rarely the object or a particle.
Prefield
 
Midfield
 
Backfield
 
Finite Subject Adverbial Verb Object Adverbia
 Han fan
 
 faktisk 
 
 pengene under senga.
Hefound actually money.theunder bed.the 
Under senga fant han faktis
 
 pengene.
 
 Faktisk fant han
 
 pengene under senga.
 
 Pengene fant han faktis
 
under senga.
 
Ut kastet han
 
ballen.
 outthrewhe ball.the
If an element occurs in the prefield its position in the mid- or backfield remainsempty. Apart from the Finite-subfield, all fields can be empty.
Prefield
 
Midfield
 
Backfield
 
Finite Subject 
 
Adverbial Verb Object Adverbia
 
 
Vent!
 wait!
 Hun sover.
 shesleeps
The cleft-sentence offers the same freedom of choice with respect to what has tobe said first in the sentence, with the exception of the sentence adverbial in (1d),where ‘*’ indicates ungrammaticality. Note that the subjunction is optional(indicated by the parentheses) when something other than the subject comesfirst.
(1)a.
Det var ham som faktisk fant pengene under senga.
itwashimthatactuallyfoundmonye.theunderbed.the‘It was him that actually found the money under the bed.’ b.
Det var under senga (som) han faktisk fant pengene.
c.
Det var pengene (som) han faktisk fant under senga.
d.*
Det var faktisk (som) han fant pengene under senga.
1.3 THE FINITE FIELD
The verb in the finite field is always conjugated (tempus), generally by adding anending to the stem, e.g.
les-er 
‘reads.’ In this way an utterance is anchored in acommunicative context, i.e. before, simultaneously, or after it. Without thiscontext it is impossible to ascertain whether an utterance is true or false. Thesentence
Per leser denne boka
‘Per is reading this book’ can only be true, if Per is actually reading the book at the time of speech.In contrast to English, the tensed verb is always the second element in theNorwegian main clauses. This means that only one element can precede thetensed verb in the prefield. If there is an auxiliary in the clause, this is placed inthe second position of the prefield, and the main verb is placed in the backfield.
Prefield
 
Midfield
 
Backfield
 
Finite Subject Adverbial Verb Object Adverbia
 Johan ha
 
 faktisk funnet pengene under senga.
Johnhas actuallyfoundmoney.theunder bed.the 

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