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1 Basic Logic Gate

1 Basic Logic Gate

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Published by Sohil Vohra
This is a module chapter for Basic Logic gates in Digital Electronics.
This is a module chapter for Basic Logic gates in Digital Electronics.

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Published by: Sohil Vohra on Mar 04, 2010
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DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (
331102
)
1 |
Page
 
SOHIL VOHRA (LECTURER -
SHRI K.J. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, BHARUCH (C.E. DEPTT)
)
PRACTICAL: 01REALIZING BASIC LOGIC GATE
1.0
 
INTRODUCTION
 
A logic gate is an electronic circuit which makes logical decision.
 
 
To arrive these decisions, the most common logic gates used are
OR, AND, NOT,NAND and NOR 
gates.
 
 
The NAND and NOR gates are called Universal gates.
 
 
The Exclusive
OR (EX-OR) gate is another logic gate that can be constructedusing basic gates such as AND, OR and NOT.
 
2.0
 
CONSTRUCTION OF GATES
 
Logic Gates have two or more inputs and one output, except for
NOT
gate whichhave one input and one output.
 
 
The output signal appears only for certain input combinations.
 
The manipulation of the binary information is done by the gates.
 
 
The Logic Gates are the basic building blocks of the hardware which is a availablein the form of various IC families.
 
 
Each gate has a distinct logic symbol and its operation can be described by themeans of an algebraic function.
 
 
This relation between input and output variable of each gate can be presented ina tabular form called a
TRUTH TABLE.
3.0
 
OR 
GATE
 
OR gate performs
logical addition,
commonly knownas OR function.
 
 
The OR gate has two or moreinputs and one output.
 
 
The operation of OR gate issuch that a HIGH (1) on theoutput is produced when anyof the input is HIGH (1). Theoutput is LOW (0) only when
 
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (
331102
)
2 |
Page
 
SOHIL VOHRA (LECTURER -
SHRI K.J. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, BHARUCH (C.E. DEPTT)
)
all the inputs are LOW (0).
 
Here is shown the graphic symbol and the truth table of OR gate.
 
 
If A & B are the input variables of OR gate, then the output will be :
 
o
 
Y = A + B
 
 
Similarly, for more than two variables, the OR function can be expressed as :
 
o
 
Y = A + B + C + D + ......
 
 
The OR gate using Diodes can be as shown. Here A & B are the inputs to thegate, Y is input and resistance R isthe Load Resistance.
 
 
Working of the gate is as follows :
 
o
 
If A = 0 and B = 0, both thediodes will not conduct andhence, the output will be Y =0.
 
o
 
If A = 1 and B = 0, diode D
1
 will conduct and hence V
0
5V and so Y = 1.
 
o
 
If A = 0 and B = 1, diode D
2
 will conduct and hence V
0
≈ 5V and so Y = 1.
 
o
 
If A = 1 and B = 1, both diodes will conduct and hence V
0
≈ 5V and so Y
= 1.
 
 
The electrical equivalent circuit of an OR gate is as shown, whereswitches A and B are connected inparallel.
 
 
If either A, B or both are closed,then the output is HIGH (1).
 
4.0
 
‘AND’ GATE
 
 
AND gate performs
logical multiplication,
commonly knownas AND function.
 
 
The AND gate has two or moreinputs and one output.
 
 
The operation of AND gate is suchthat a HIGH (1) on the output isproduced when both the inputs areHIGH (1). The output is LOW (0)
 
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (
331102
)
3 |
Page
 
SOHIL VOHRA (LECTURER -
SHRI K.J. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, BHARUCH (C.E. DEPTT)
)
when any of the inputs is LOW (0).
 
 
Here is shown the graphic symbol and the truth table of AND gate.
 
 
If A & B are the input variables of AND gate, then the output will be :
 
o
 
Y = A
·
B
 
 
Similarly, for more than two variables,the OR function can be expressed as :
 
o
 
Y = A
·
B
·
C
·
D
·
......
 
 
The AND gate using Diodes can be asshown. Here A & B are the inputs tothe gate, Y is input and resistance R isthe Load Resistance.
 
 
Working of the gate is as follows :
 
o
 
If A = 0 and B = 0, both thediodes will conduct as both thediodes are forward biased andhence, the output will be Y =0.
 
o
 
If A = 1 and B = 0, diode D
1
 will conduct (being forwardbiased) and D
2
will not conductas it is reversed biased henceand so Y = 0.
 
o
 
If A = 0 and B = 1, diode D
2
will conduct (being forward biased) and D
1
 will not conduct as it is reversed biased hence and so Y = 0.
 
o
 
If A = 1 and B = 1, both diodes will not conduct as both are reversedbiased and hence V
0
≈ 5V and so Y = 1.
 
 
The electrical equivalent of the above circuit is as shown.
 
 
Here two switches A & B are connected in series. If both A & B are closed, thenthe output is HIGH, else in any other combination, output will be LOW.
 
 
For an AND gate, when there are more inputs, all the inputs should be HIGH toget a HIGH output. For this reason, AND gate is also called
 ALL Gate.
 
5.0
 
‘NOT’ GATE
 
 
The NOT gate performs the basic logic function called
inversion
or
complement.
 
The purpose of this gate is to convert one logic level into the opposite logic level.
 
 
It has one input and one output.
 

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