# Welcome back

## Find a book, put up your feet, stay awhile

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more

Download

Standard view

Full view

of .

Look up keyword

Like this

Share on social networks

20Activity

×

0 of .

Results for: No results containing your search query

P. 1

1 Basic Logic GateRatings: (0)|Views: 1,222|Likes: 19

Published by Sohil Vohra

This is a module chapter for Basic Logic gates in Digital Electronics.

This is a module chapter for Basic Logic gates in Digital Electronics.

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/27814418/1-Basic-Logic-Gate

01/01/2013

text

original

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (

331102

)

1 |

Page

SOHIL VOHRA (LECTURER -

SHRI K.J. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, BHARUCH (C.E. DEPTT)

)

PRACTICAL: 01REALIZING BASIC LOGIC GATE

1.0

INTRODUCTION

A logic gate is an electronic circuit which makes logical decision.

To arrive these decisions, the most common logic gates used are

OR, AND, NOT,NAND and NOR

gates.

The NAND and NOR gates are called Universal gates.

The Exclusive

–

OR (EX-OR) gate is another logic gate that can be constructedusing basic gates such as AND, OR and NOT.

2.0

CONSTRUCTION OF GATES

Logic Gates have two or more inputs and one output, except for

NOT

gate whichhave one input and one output.

The output signal appears only for certain input combinations.

The manipulation of the binary information is done by the gates.

The Logic Gates are the basic building blocks of the hardware which is a availablein the form of various IC families.

Each gate has a distinct logic symbol and its operation can be described by themeans of an algebraic function.

This relation between input and output variable of each gate can be presented ina tabular form called a

TRUTH TABLE.

3.0

‘

OR

’

GATE

OR gate performs

logical addition,

commonly knownas OR function.

The OR gate has two or moreinputs and one output.

The operation of OR gate issuch that a HIGH (1) on theoutput is produced when anyof the input is HIGH (1). Theoutput is LOW (0) only when

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (

331102

)

2 |

Page

SOHIL VOHRA (LECTURER -

SHRI K.J. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, BHARUCH (C.E. DEPTT)

)

all the inputs are LOW (0).

Here is shown the graphic symbol and the truth table of OR gate.

If A & B are the input variables of OR gate, then the output will be :

o

Y = A + B

Similarly, for more than two variables, the OR function can be expressed as :

o

Y = A + B + C + D + ......

The OR gate using Diodes can be as shown. Here A & B are the inputs to thegate, Y is input and resistance R isthe Load Resistance.

Working of the gate is as follows :

o

If A = 0 and B = 0, both thediodes will not conduct andhence, the output will be Y =0.

o

If A = 1 and B = 0, diode D

1

will conduct and hence V

0

≈

5V and so Y = 1.

o

If A = 0 and B = 1, diode D

2

will conduct and hence V

0

≈ 5V and so Y = 1.

o

If A = 1 and B = 1, both diodes will conduct and hence V

0

≈ 5V and so Y

= 1.

The electrical equivalent circuit of an OR gate is as shown, whereswitches A and B are connected inparallel.

If either A, B or both are closed,then the output is HIGH (1).

4.0

‘AND’ GATE

AND gate performs

logical multiplication,

commonly knownas AND function.

The AND gate has two or moreinputs and one output.

The operation of AND gate is suchthat a HIGH (1) on the output isproduced when both the inputs areHIGH (1). The output is LOW (0)

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (

331102

)

3 |

Page

SOHIL VOHRA (LECTURER -

SHRI K.J. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, BHARUCH (C.E. DEPTT)

)

when any of the inputs is LOW (0).

Here is shown the graphic symbol and the truth table of AND gate.

If A & B are the input variables of AND gate, then the output will be :

o

Y = A

·

B

Similarly, for more than two variables,the OR function can be expressed as :

o

Y = A

·

B

·

C

·

D

·

......

The AND gate using Diodes can be asshown. Here A & B are the inputs tothe gate, Y is input and resistance R isthe Load Resistance.

Working of the gate is as follows :

o

If A = 0 and B = 0, both thediodes will conduct as both thediodes are forward biased andhence, the output will be Y =0.

o

If A = 1 and B = 0, diode D

1

will conduct (being forwardbiased) and D

2

will not conductas it is reversed biased henceand so Y = 0.

o

If A = 0 and B = 1, diode D

2

will conduct (being forward biased) and D

1

will not conduct as it is reversed biased hence and so Y = 0.

o

If A = 1 and B = 1, both diodes will not conduct as both are reversedbiased and hence V

0

≈ 5V and so Y = 1.

The electrical equivalent of the above circuit is as shown.

Here two switches A & B are connected in series. If both A & B are closed, thenthe output is HIGH, else in any other combination, output will be LOW.

For an AND gate, when there are more inputs, all the inputs should be HIGH toget a HIGH output. For this reason, AND gate is also called

ALL Gate.

5.0

‘NOT’ GATE

The NOT gate performs the basic logic function called

inversion

or

complement.

The purpose of this gate is to convert one logic level into the opposite logic level.

It has one input and one output.

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.

1 hundred reads

1 thousand reads

jehangirvirani1464 liked this

Sampriti Sinha liked this

Souma Dutta liked this

Yogesh Memane liked this

Siva Prasad liked this

rs2tl115 liked this

mrmrsss liked this

rkgnanasekar liked this

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

© Copyright 2015 Scribd Inc.

Language

Choose the language in which you want to experience Scribd:

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Password Reset Email Sent

Join with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

By joining, you agree to our

read free for two weeks

Unlimited access to more than

one million books

one million books

Personalized recommendations

based on books you love

based on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Join with Facebook

or Join with emailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

Already a member? Sign in.

By joining, you agree to our

to download

Unlimited access to more than

one million books

one million books

Personalized recommendations

based on books you love

based on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Continue with Facebook

Sign inJoin with emailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

By joining, you agree to our

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd