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2 Universal Gate

2 Universal Gate

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Published by Sohil Vohra
study of universal gates in digital electronics
study of universal gates in digital electronics

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Published by: Sohil Vohra on Mar 04, 2010
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04/24/2013

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DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (
331102
)
9 |
Page
 
SOHIL VOHRA (LECTURER -
SHRI K.J. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, BHARUCH (C.E. DEPTT)
)
PRACTICAL: 02REALIZING NAND AND NOR GATE AS UNIVERSALGATE LOGIC
1.0
 
OBJECTIVES
 
Universal Gates : NAND and NOR gates
 
 
How to implement AND, OR and NOT gate using NAND Gate.
 
 
How to implement AND, OR and NOT gate using NOR Gate.
 
 
Equivalent Gates
 2.0
 
‘NAND’ GATE
 
 
NAND is the contraction of AND
NOTgates.
 
 
It has two or more inputs and only oneoutput i.e. Y = A · B.
 
 
When all the inputs are HIGH, the outputis LOW. If any one or both the inputs areLOW, then the output is HIGH.
 
 
The Logic symbol and the truth table of NAND gate is as shown here.
 
 
The small circle (or
bubble
) represents the operation of inversion.
 
 
The NAND gate is equivalent to an OR gate with the bubble at its inputs which areas shown.
 
 
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (
331102
)
10 |
Page
 
SOHIL VOHRA (LECTURER -
SHRI K.J. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, BHARUCH (C.E. DEPTT)
)
3.0
 
‘NOR’ GATE
 
 
NOR is the contraction of OR
NOT gates.
 
 
It has two or more inputs and onlyone output i.e. Y = A + B.
 
 
When all the inputs are LOW, theoutput is HIGH. If any one or boththe inputs are HIGH, then theoutput is LOW.
 
 
The Logic symbol and the truthtable of NOR gate is as shownhere.
 
 
The small circle (or
bubble
)represents the operation of inversion.
 
 
The NOR gate is equivalent to an AND gate with the bubble at its inputs which areas shown.
 
4.0
 
UNIVERSAL GATES :
 
A universal gate is a gate which can implement any Boolean function withoutneed to use any other gate type.
 
The NAND and NOR gates are universal gates.
 
In practice, this is advantageous since NAND and NOR gates are economical andeasier to fabricate and are the basic gates used in all IC digital logic families.
 
In fact, an AND gate is typically implemented as a NAND gate followed by aninverter not the other way around!!
 
Likewise, an OR gate is typically implemented as a NOR gate followed by aninverter not the other way around!!
 
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (
331102
)
11 |
Page
 
SOHIL VOHRA (LECTURER -
SHRI K.J. POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, BHARUCH (C.E. DEPTT)
)
5.0
 
NAND GATE AS A UNIVERSAL GATE :
 
To prove that any Boolean function can be implemented using only NAND gates,we will show that the AND, OR, and NOT operations can be performed using onlythese gates.
 
IMPLEMENTING
INVERTER 
USING NAND GATE :The figure shows two ways in which a NAND gate can be used as aninverter (NOT gate).1.
 
All NAND input pins connectto the input signal A gives an
output A’.
 2.
 
One NAND input pin isconnected to the input signalA while all other input pinsare connected to logic 1. The
output will be A’.
 
 
IMPLEMENTING
AND
USING NAND GATE :An AND gate can be replacedby NAND gates as shown inthe figure (The AND is replacedby a NAND gate with its outputcomplemented by a NAND gate inverter).
 
IMPLEMENTING
OR 
USING NAND GATE :
An OR gate
can be replaced byNAND gates as shown in thefigure (The OR gate is replaced bya NAND gate with all its inputscomplemented by NAND gateinverters).
Thus, the NAND gate is a universal gate since it can implement the AND,OR and NOT functions.
6.0
 
NOR GATE AS A UNIVERSAL GATE :
 
To prove that any Boolean function can be implemented using only NOR gates,we will show that the AND, OR, and NOT operations can be performed using onlythese gates.IMPLEMENTING
INVERTER 
USING NOR GATE :
 
The figure shows two ways inwhich a NOR gate can be usedas an inverter (NOT gate).

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