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Design of Turnbuckle

Design of Turnbuckle

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Published by jaykyu

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Published by: jaykyu on Mar 04, 2010
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DESIGN OF TURNBUCKLEProblem Specification
It is required to design turnbuckle for a connecting the tie rods in theroof truss. The maximum pull in the tie rods is 75KN.
 The construction of the turnbuckle is shown in Fig. 01. It consists of acentral portion called coupler and two rods. One has right hand threads whilethe other rod has left hand threads. The threaded portions of the rods arescrewed to the coupler at the two ends. As the central coupler rotates, therods are either pulled together or pushed apart depending upon the directionof the rotation of the coupler. The outer portion of the coupler is givenhexagonal shape so that it can be rotated by means of a spanner.Sometimes a hole is provided in the coupler as indicated by a dotted circle inthe figure. Instead of using a spanner, a tommy bar is inserted in this holerotate the coupler. The turnbuckle is used for connecting two rods which arein tension and which require slight adjustment in length during the assembly.Some of its applications are as follows:1.To tighten the members of the roof truss;2.To tighten the cables or the stay ropes of electric distribution poles;and3.To connect the tie rod to the jib in case of jib-cranes.
 Fig. 01 TurnbuckleSelection of Materials
Coupler has relatively complex shape and the economic methods tomake the coupler in casting. Casting reduces number of machiningoperations. Grey cast iron of grade FG 200(=200Pa) is selected as thematerial for the coupler. The rods are subjected to tensile force and torsionalmoment. From strength considerations, plain carbon steel of grade 30C8 (=400 Pa) is selected for the rods.
General Considerations
Many times, turnbuckle is subjected to rough handling while in use.Sometimes, workers use a pipe to increase the length of the spanner andtighten the rods. Some workers even use a hammer to apply force on thespanner. To account for this mis-use, a higher factor of safety of 5 is used inpresent design. The coupler and the rods are provided with ISO metric coarse threads.Coarse Threads are preferred because of the following advantages:
Coarse threads are easier to cut than fine threads;
 They are less likely to seize during tightening; and
 There is more even stress distribution. The rods are tightened by applying force on the wrench handle androtating the hexagonal coupler. The expression for torque required to tightenthe rod with specific tension P can be derived by suitable modification of theequation derived for the trapezoidal threads. The torque required toovercome thread friction in case of trapezoidal threads is given by Equation.=For ISO metric screw threads,
Where, d is the normal diameter of the threads. The coefficient of frictionvaries from 0.12 to 0.2 depending upon the surface finish and accuracy of the thread profile and lubricantion. Assuming,and substituting above values in Eq.=Or =0.098Pd The above expression is used to find out torsional moment at each end of the coupler.
 The free body diagram of forces acting on the rods and the coupler isshown in Fig. 02. Each rod is subjected to a tensile force P and torsionalmoment . In the initial stages, it is not possible to find out torsionalmoment. Considering only tensile force,P=AWhere, A is tensile stress area of the treaded portion of the rod and ispermissible tensile stress. The rod is made of steel 30C8 (= 400Pa) andfactor of safety is 5. Therefore,75KN= A=937.5From table, ISO metric coarse screw thread of M36 designation is suitablefor the rod (stress area = 817).For M36 size, the core diameter (asper table is 31.093 mm.
Trial No.01
d = 36 mm and = 31.093 mm
= =

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