Disaster Management on India
Disaster Management .When I first heard this term, I thought how contradictory the two words are. Can adisaster really be managed and if so then it does not qualify to be called disaster.After some research, I realized probably these are the things that are really required to be managed, allother things might manage themselves on their own, but disasters surely need to be managed .Earlier disasters used to be natural like floods, cyclones, drought, earthquake, landslides but now wehave added to this a long list of manmade disasters as well like chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear,Industrial disasters, pollution related disasters like acid rain, disturbed monsoons and seasonal cycle.According to Bureau of Crises Prevention and Recovery of United Nations Development Program, some75% of the world’s people live in areas that have been affected at least once by an earthquake, a tropicalcyclone, flooding or drought between 1980 and 2000.India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique geo-climaticconditions. About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities; over 40 millionhectares is prone to floods; about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the area issusceptible to drought. The super cyclone in Orissa in October, 1999, the Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat inJanuary, 2001 and the unprecedented tsunami in 2004 underscored the need to adopt a multidimensional endeavour involving diverse scientific, engineering, financial and social processes; the needto adopt multi disciplinary and multi sect oral approach and incorporation of risk reduction in thedevelopmental plans and strategies.
The arrangement for disaster management is comparatively of recent origin in our country as comparedto other countries like USA which had a formal arrangement in 1979.Most of the developed countries are30 to 40 years ahead of India.In 1999 government set up a high powered committee to develop disaster management plans atnational ,state and district levels.India became one of the first developing countries to have set up an institutional mechanism for disaster management as part of 169 member Hygo Framework for Action(2005-2015).The Disaster Management Bill was unanimously adopted by both houses of Parliament and Disaster Management Act 2005 that envisaged the establishment of NDMA(NationalDisaster ManagementAuthority, chaired by Prime Minister of India as the apex body for disaster management in, State disaster management authorities(SDMAs) and District disaster management Authorities (DDMAs).
National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)
has been established as the Apex Training Institute for disaster management in India. NIDMs main areasof concern are• To undertake quality research , with a multi-hazard approach• To work as a National Resource Center for the central and state governments through effectiveknowledge management and sharing of best practices• To professionalize disaster risk reduction and emergency management in India and other neighboringcountries by developing an independent cadre of professionally trained emergency and mitigationmanagers.• To build working partnerships with the Government, universities, NGOs, corporate bodies and other national and international Institutes of eminence.• To link learning and action by building a synergy between institutions and professionals in the sector.A National Disaster Response Force(NDRF) has also been established with personnel from Para militaryforces for strengthening the preparedness and emergency response in the country. Total 8 battalions