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HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER NOTES

# HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER NOTES

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THIS CONTAINS III UNITS OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER NOTES STUDENTS CAN MAKE USE OF IT
THIS CONTAINS III UNITS OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER NOTES STUDENTS CAN MAKE USE OF IT

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02/04/2015

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B BALAMUGUNDANSENIOR LECTURER PANIMALAR ENGG COLLEGECHENNAI
UNIT ICONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER 1.Derive general heat conduction equation in Cartesiancoordinates?
Consider a small rectangular element of sides dx, dy and dz as shownin figure.The energy balance of this rectangular element is obtained from first lawof thermodynamics
Net heat conductedinto element from allthe coordinatedirections+Heat generatedwithin the element=Heat stored in theelement -----1Net heat conducted into element from all the coordinate directions:
As per the Fourier law of heat conduction the rate of heat flow into theelement in X, Y, Z directions through face ABCD, ABEF, ADHE are
Q
x
= -k dy dz
dx x
}Q
y
= -k dx dz
dy y
} ------------------2Q
z
= -k dy dx
d z
}
The rate of heat flow out of the element in X direction through the faceEFGH is
Q
x + dx
= Q
x
+
( )
dxQx x
------3
Sub Equ 2 in Equ 3
Q
x
– Q
x+ dx
= Qx – {Q
x
+

( )
dxQx x
}Q
x
– Q
x+ dx
=
}{
xkdydzdx x
Q
x
– Q
x+ dx
=
22
xkdxdydx
Q
x
– Q
x+ dx
=
22
xkdxdydx
------4SimilarlyQ
y
– Q
y+ dy
=
22
ykdxdydx
------5

B BALAMUGUNDANSENIOR LECTURER PANIMALAR ENGG COLLEGECHENNAI
Q
z
– Q
z+ dz
=
22
z kdxdydx
------6Q = { (Q
x
– Q
x+ dx
) + (Q
y
– Q
y+ dy
)+( Q
z
– Q
z+ dz
) } ---- 7
Sub Equ 4 , 5, 6 in Equ 7
kdxdydz {
+
22
x
+
22
y
22
z
} ---8Heat generated internally : Qg = q dxdydz ------9Heat stored in the element: Q
IE
=
ρ
Cp
dxdydz
-----10
Sub Equ 8, 9, 10 in Equ 1
kdxdydz {
+
22
x
+
22
y
22
z
} + q dxdydz =
ρ
Cp
dxdydz
---11
Take dxdydz commonly and divide by k

+
22
x
+
22
y
22
z
+
q
=
Cp
ρ
---- Three dimensional heatconduction equationfor Cartesian coordinatesCase 1: No heat generation
q
=0
+
22
x
+
22
y
22
z
=
Cp
ρ
----- Fourier EquationCase 2: Steady state condition
0
=

+
22
x
+
22
y
22
z
+
q
= 0 --- Poisson EquationCase 3 : No heat generation and steady state :
q
=0
0
=

+
22
x
+
22
y
22
z
= 0 --- Laplace Equation2. General heat conduction equation in Cylindrical coordinates:
While dealing with problems of conduction of heat through systemshaving cylindrical geometrics it is convenient to use cylindricalcoordinates. Consider an elemental volume having the coordinates (r, φ,z) for three dimensional heat conduction analysis as shown in figure.The volume of the element V = rdφ dr dz
Net heat conducted Heat generated Heat stored in the

B BALAMUGUNDANSENIOR LECTURER PANIMALAR ENGG COLLEGECHENNAI
into element from allthe coordinatedirections+within the element=element -----1a. Net heat accumulated in the element due to conduction of heatfrom all the coordinate direction considered:Heat flow in radial direction (r plane):
Heat influx
dkrQ
T dz
=
φ
Heat efflux
Qrdr Qdr Q
+=+
}{
Qrdr QQdr QQ
+=+
=
ddkr
φ
=
    
drdz k
φ
=
      +
drdz k
22
φ
dQQ
+
=
      +
drdz k
1
22
φ
----2
Heat flow in tangential direction (φ plane):
Heat influx:
φ
φ
=
kdrdz Q
Heat efflux:
φ φ
φ φ φ φ
rQQQ
+=
+
      +=
+
φ φ φ
φ φ φ φ φ
rkdrdz QQQQ
φ φ φ
QQ
+
=
222
1
φ φ
dkdrrd
---3
Heat flow in axial direction (z plane):
Heat influx:
z kdrrd Q
z
=
φ
Heat efflux:
dQ z QQ
z  z dz  z
+=
+
d z  z
QQ
+
=
22
z dkdrrd
φ
---4