up-to-date cousins have anything to say about the collisionof balls-in-themselves. In the past century, the doctrine of Parmenides that being and thought are the same has beenimplied by Husserl, stated explicitly by Heidegger, andrestated quite emphatically by Badiou. But this equation of being and thought must be rejected, since it leaves usstranded in a human–world coupling that merely reenactsthe breakthroughs of yesteryear. Reviving the problem of causation means to break free of the epistemologicaldeadlock and reawaken the metaphysical question of whatrelation means. Along with causation there is also the‘vicarious’ part of the phrase, which indicates that relationsnever directly encounter the autonomous reality of theircomponents. After thousands of years, ‘substance’ is stillthe best name for such reality. The widespread resistanceto substance is nothing more than revulsion at certaininadequate models of substance, and such models can bereplaced. Along with substance, the term ‘objects’ will beused to refer to autonomous realities of any kind, with theadded advantage that this term also makes room for thetemporary and artificial objects too often excluded fromthe ranks of substance.Since this article rejects any privilege of human accessto the world, and puts the affairs of human consciousnesson exactly the same footing as the duel between canaries,microbes, earthquakes, atoms, and tar, it may sound like adefense of scientific naturalism that reduces everything tophysical events. But the term ‘vicarious’ is designed tooppose all forms of naturalism, byindicating that westillhave no idea how physical relations (or any other kind) arepossible in the first place. For as I will contend, objects hide189Harman – Vicarious CausationThe phrase ‘vicarious causation’ consists of two parts, both of them cutting against the grain of present-dayphilosophy.
Causality has rarely been a genuine topic of inquiry since the seventeenth century. The supposed greatdebate over causation between sceptics and transcendentalphilosophers is at best a yes-or-no dispute as to whethercausal necessity exists, and in practice is just an argumentover whether it can be known. What has been lacking isactive discussion of the very nature of causality. This isnow taken to be obvious: one object exerts force overanother and makes it change physical position or some of its features. No one sees any way to speak about theinteraction of fire and cotton, since philosophy remainspreoccupied with the sole relational gap between humansand the world – even if only to deny such a gap. Inanimaterelations have been abandoned to laboratory research,where their metaphysical character is openly dismissed. Torevivecausation in philosophy means to reject thedominance of Kant’s Copernican Revolution and its singlelonely rift between people and everything else. Although Iwill claim that real objects do exist beyond human sensualaccess to them, this should not beconfused with Kant’sdistinction between phenomena and noumena. WhereasKant’s distinction is something endured byhumans alone,Ihold that one billiardball hides from another no less thanthe ball-in-itself hides from humans. When a hailstormsmashes vineyards or sends waves through a pond, theserelations are just as worthy of philosophy as the unceasing dispute over the chasm or non-chasm between being andthought. Neither Kant, nor Hegel, nor their more188COLLAPSE II
1. The term was first introduced in my book
Guerrilla Metaphysics: Phenomenology and the Carpentry ofThings
(Chicago: Open Court, 2005).
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