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Gender and Development

Gender and Development

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Development strategies, in the name of gender-neutral, are gender-blind. The gender blindness of development strategies are derived from the gender-insensitiveness of dominant development paradigms, which, in the name of work, do not make any distinction between productive and reproductive work and does not differentiate, in the name of household, the asymmetries faced by its different members on the basis of sex.
Development strategies, in the name of gender-neutral, are gender-blind. The gender blindness of development strategies are derived from the gender-insensitiveness of dominant development paradigms, which, in the name of work, do not make any distinction between productive and reproductive work and does not differentiate, in the name of household, the asymmetries faced by its different members on the basis of sex.

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Published by: Chela Emmanuel Mulenga on Mar 05, 2010
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Development strategies, in the name of gender-neutral, are gender-blind. The gender blindness of development strategies are derived from thegender-insensitiveness of dominant development paradigms, which, in thename of work, do not make any distinction between productive andreproductive work and does not differentiate, in the name of household, theasymmetries faced by its different members on the basis of sex. Given thenature of gender blindness of development ……………………………………….. The paper discusses, with the aid of examples the traditional and religiouspractices that may have contributed to gender inequality amongwomen………………………….
The concept of gender
On the definition of gender, Gender Analysts (2004) argues that, Sex refers to universal biological differences between women and men, and gender to male and female behavioralnorms which are learnt differently in different societies and Change over the course of time. Theconcept of Gender is aimed at gender equity and equality. Gender equality does not simply or necessarily mean equal numbers of men and women or boys and girls in all activities, nor does itnecessarily mean treating men and women or boys and girls exactly the same. It signifies anaspiration to work towards a society in which neither women nor men suffer from poverty in itsmany forms, and in which women and men are able to live equally fulfilling lives. It meansrecognizing that men and women often have different needs and priorities, face differentconstraints, have different aspirations and contribute to development in different ways.Gender characteristics are based on …………………………………………………..
Women are paid less than men, even when they have the same qualifications and work thesame hours.
According to Kabeer(2002),women who work full time earn only 77 percent of what men make,a22 percent gap, in average annual wages. Discrimination, not lack of training or education, islargely the cause of the wage gap. 29.6 million employed women in the United States wereclustered in just 20 occupational categories, of which the average annual median earnings were$27,383.
 
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Traditionally Women spend more time providing unpaid care giving than men.
Women are more likely than men to care for children and elderly or disabled family members.One study found that 69 percent of unpaid caregivers to older adults in the home are women.Because combining unpaid care giving with paid work can be challenging, women are morelikely to work part time or take time out of the workforce to care for family. Twenty-three percent of mothers are out of the
Domestic and Gender Based sexual violence can push women into a cycle of poverty.
Experiencing domestic or sexual violence can lead to job loss, poor health, and homelessness. Itis estimated that victims of intimate partner violence collectively lose almost 8 million dollars of  paid work each year because of the violence perpetrated against them by current or former husbands, boyfriends, or dates (WID, 1999).
Women are Doubly Denied
Because of gender gap, WID (1999) observed that, women from the poor families face moredifficulty than men in accessing urban services. Though they contribute towards economicdevelopment by participating in various economic sectors like readymade garments, constructionand trading etc, women face constraints in playing their role due to inefficient and lack of services. ……………
Gender inequality perpetuates and deepens poverty
Ozler (1999) notes that, throughout the developing world, rural women engage in multipleeconomic activities that are critical to the survival of poor households. Rural poor women playan essential role in crop production and livestock care, and they provide the food, water and fueltheir families need“Women own less than 2 per cent of all land, and receive only 5 per cent of extension servicesworldwide. It is estimated that women in Africa receive less than 10 per cent of all credit goingto small farmers and a mere 1 per cent of the total credit going to the agricultural sector. Themost extreme manifestation of gender inequality and the disregard of women’s human rights isthe fact that at least 60 million girls are ‘missing’, mostly in Asia, due to female infanticide or sex-selective abortions. Added to these are an estimated 5,000 women murdered each year in‘honour killings’”(ibid,1995).
 
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It can be argued from the above that The HIV/AIDS crisis, which is already reversing theeconomic gains achieved in some developing countries, affects women disproportionately, bothas individuals and in their roles as mothers and caregivers. Over the next decade, the epidemic isexpected to spread even
Neglecting women’s rights
Overall, the neglect of women’s needs and rights undermines the potential of entire communitiesto grow and develop. Poverty is therefore deeply rooted in the glaring imbalance between whatwomen do and what they have – in terms of both assets and rights. As women’s status increases,so do the benefits to society. Studies have shown, for instance, that the major contributing factor to improved child nutrition is women’s socio-economic status, particularly their educationallevels. In addition, the countries that have
Lack of entitlements and capabilities
Sen (1981) argues that, Vulnerability is not synonymous with poverty. Most poor people arevulnerable, but not all vulnerable people are poor. Persons who are not in a state of materialdeprivation may, nonetheless, be vulnerable to poverty. For example, married women who arenot participating in paid labour or have productive assets may be vulnerable to poverty in case of widowhood, divorce or separation even if they are not “poor” by a variety of criteria. Theconcept of vulnerability involves being at risk of becoming poor as a result of natural or sociallyinduced crises. It is associated with insecurity and defenselessness in the face of crises.Chambers (1989) notes that, a human poverty or capabilities perspective, makes it possible to seethat women are indeed poorer in most societies in many dimensions of capabilities sucheducation and health, but not necessarily in terms of life expectancy, although there are alsosocieties in which women’s life expectancy is shorter than men’s due to maternal mortality or child mortality that may result from biases against girls’ health and nutrition needs. Resourceallocation within households is often biased against girls and women.In addition, it is harder for women to transform their capabilities into incomes or well-being.Gender inequalities in the distribution of income, access to productive inputs such as credit,command over property or control over earned income, as well as gender biases in labor markets

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