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Published by tarpara

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Published by: tarpara on Mar 05, 2010
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Contents
Euro………………………………………………………………………………1
1 Administration………………………………………………………………....1
2 Characteristics …………………………………………………………………2
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2.1 Coins and banknotes…………………………………………………2
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2.3 Currency sign…………………………………………………………3
3 Introduction of the euro ………………………………………………………..4
4 Direct and indirect usage ………………………………………………………6
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4.1 Direct usage ………………………………………………………….6
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4.2 Usage as reserve currency……………………………………………6
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4.3 Currencies pegged to the euro………………………………………..7
5 Economics ……………………………………………………………………...8
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5.1 Optimal currency area ………………………………………………..8
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5.2 Transaction costs and risks…………………………………………...8
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5.3 Price parity……………………………………………………………8
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5.4 Macroeconomic stability……………………………………………...9
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5.5.1 Trade………………………………………………………..9
5.5.2 Investment ………………………………………………….9
5.5.3 Inflation……………………………………………………10
5.5.4 Exchange rate risk  …………………………………………10
5.5.5 Financial integration………………………………………10
5.5.6 Effect on interest rates …………………………………….11
5.5.7 Price convergence …………………………………………11
5.5.8 Tourism……………………………………………………11
6 Exchange rates………………………………………………………………...11
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6.1 Flexible exchange rates ……………………………………………...12
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6.2 Against other major currencies ……………………………………...12
7 Linguistic issues ……………………………………………………………….13
8 Currency………………………………………………………………………..13
9 Control & Production…………………………………………………………..14
10 Coinage……………………………………………………………………….15
11 Eurozone……………………………………………………………………...15
12 Members……………………………………………………………………...17
13 Enlargement…………………………………………………………………..18
14 Non-member usage…………………………………………………………...20
15 Globle Currency Reserve…………………………………………………….20
16 Europion Union………………………………………………………………21
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16.1 History……………………………………………………………...21
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16.2 Member of state……………………………………………………22
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16.3 Geography………………………………………………………….25
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16.4 Governance………………………………………………………...26
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16.5 European Council………………………………………………….26

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