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Fire Explosion Hazards

Fire Explosion Hazards

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Published by Joao Santos
Fire and Explosion Hazards Analysis
Fire and Explosion Hazards Analysis

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Published by: Joao Santos on Mar 05, 2010
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08/18/2013

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SS
AFETYAFETY
EE
NGINEERINGNGINEERING
HH
ANDBOOKANDBOOK
SS
ERIESERIES
FIRE AND EXPLOSIONFIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS ANALYSISHAZARDS ANALYSIS
PublicationPublication
20102010PP
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AZARDSAZARDS
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 NALYSIS NALYSIS
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CKNOWLEDGMENTSCKNOWLEDGMENTS
The Fire and Explosion Hazards Analysis textbook is a result of the collaborative efforts of the author with otherprofessional representatives in the field of industrial safety engineering. They contributed substantially to thedevelopment of this manual by providing technical information and review. Although they are too numerous to nameindividually, I wish gratefully acknowledge their valuable contributions.
About the Author 
 João Luís Santos is a professional safety engineer, responsible for executing risk, safey and fire risk analysis servicesprovided to diversified industry sectors, including oil and gas industry. The author holds a Bachelor (B. Eng.) degree inChemical Engineering and Licentiate (Lic. Eng.) degree in Chemical Engineering from School of Engineering of Polytechnic Institute of Oporto (Portugal), and a Master (M. Sc.) degree in Environmental Engineering from Faculty of Engineering of the University of Oporto (Portugal). Also, he has an Advanced Diploma in Safety and OccupationalHealth from the Institute for Welding and Quality (ISQ) and he is licensed and certified by ACT (NationalExamination Board in Occupational Safety and Health, Work Conditions National Authority).
Notice 
No warranty, guarantee, or representation, expressed or implied, is made by or on behalf of any public or privatecompany, as well on behalf of any public or private institution, as to the absolute correctness or sufficiency of anyrepresentation contained in this document. The author assumes no responsibility in connection therewith, nor can it beassumed that all acceptable safety measures are contained in this or associated documents, or that other or additionalmeasures may not be required under particular or exceptional conditions or circumstances. The mention of a brandname product or company does not constitute endorsement by the author. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by Risiko Technik Gruppe (RTG). Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, orservice by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,recommendation, or favoring by the Risiko Technik Gruppe, any agency thereof, or any of their contractors orsubcontractors.This textbook is available to the public from the sponsor agency:Risiko Technik Gruppe Office of Scientific and Technical Information can be requested to:E-Mail: risiko.technik@lycos.comThis textbook is also available to the public from the author:E-Mail: joao.santos@lycos.comPP
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ONTENTSONTENTS
Understanding Fire and Explosion Hazards..........................................................................................................................7Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................7Hydrocarbon Fuels and Their Properties........................................................................................................................8Flammability Limits...................................................................................................................................................8Auto-ignition Temperature........................................................................................................................................8Minimum Ignition Energy.........................................................................................................................................9Other Relevant Hydrocarbon Considerations.........................................................................................................10The Combustion Process...............................................................................................................................................10Sources of Oxygen...................................................................................................................................................12Ignition Sources.......................................................................................................................................................13Carbanionic Radical Mechanism in Hot Surface Combustions..............................................................................15Smoke Production and Properties.................................................................................................................................18Size Distribution......................................................................................................................................................19Smoke Properties.....................................................................................................................................................20Dust Explosion..............................................................................................................................................................22Hazards Associated With Combustible Dusts ........................................................................................................22Risk Assessment for Dust Explosion........................................................................................................................25Hazardous Area Classification......................................................................................................................................28Class I Hazardous Areas..........................................................................................................................................28Class II Hazardous Areas.........................................................................................................................................29Class III Hazardous Areas........................................................................................................................................30Area Classification Assessment...............................................................................................................................30Protection Methods and Hazard Reduction............................................................................................................30Bibliography and References.........................................................................................................................................31Fire Hazard Analysis Techniques........................................................................................................................................33Introduction..................................................................................................................................................................33Performing a Fire Hazard Analysis................................................................................................................................34Developing Fire Scenarios and Design Fire Scenarios.............................................................................................34Quantification of Design Fire Scenarios.......................................................................................................................37Design Fire Curves...................................................................................................................................................37Prediction of Fire Effects..........................................................................................................................................39Prediction of Hazards....................................................................................................................................................41Simple Fire Hazard Calculations.............................................................................................................................41Simple Analytical Solution Techniques...................................................................................................................44Computer Models....................................................................................................................................................45Analyzing the Impact of Exposure...........................................................................................................................47Accounting for Uncertainty....................................................................................................................................47Final Review............................................................................................................................................................47Bibliography and References.........................................................................................................................................48Understanding Liquid Natural Gas Fire Hazards................................................................................................................49Introduction..................................................................................................................................................................49Hazards of Cryogenic Exposure on Liquified Natural Gas............................................................................................52Hazards of Cryogenic Exposure...............................................................................................................................53Hazards to Structures and Equipment.....................................................................................................................53Hazards of Fire Exposure.........................................................................................................................................53Risk-based Protection of Onshore Facilities............................................................................................................53Protection of Offshore Facilities..............................................................................................................................54Thermal Radiation from Pool Fires...............................................................................................................................55Hazardous Liquids...................................................................................................................................................56Hazardous Gases......................................................................................................................................................58Determining the Acceptable Separation Distance (ASD)......................................................................................59Estimation of Thermal Radiation (Analytical Model)............................................................................................59Bibliography and References.........................................................................................................................................61Risk Analysis and Safety Implications of Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water...............................................63PP
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