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Hydrogen Turbine Consideration

Hydrogen Turbine Consideration

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Published by FMPeck
Reaction Turbine Investigation
Reaction Turbine Investigation

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Published by: FMPeck on Mar 05, 2010
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07/28/2013

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1. Feasibility of Hydrogen Combustion for “Nero/Tesla Style” Reaction Turbines-
The primary “thrust” of the proposal is the investigation of using Plug Flow Reactors (Cells) tosupply steam input to a reaction turbine. Advances in shaft seals and machining tolerances since their time spark new interest in localized power generation techniques. It is proposed for instance, to createshaft rotation by supplying steam input via the exhaust port of a Tesla Turbine, operating the turbine asa Nero style Reaction Turbine. The reaction is very hot with a fast burn rate. Consequently, it is proposed that the reaction be tempered by the injection of water that controls the rate of reaction, addsmass to the propellant, and still produces viable “dry” steam pressure. Using the equations below thePlug Flow Reactor and Laval nozzle concept is examined using finite element techniques that describeits operation.For some background for those who look up values in Chemistry Handbooks without fullyunderstanding their meaning, power plants have considered the use of hydrogen-oxygen combustion inthe past, but only as a “flue gas conversion” of their existing boiler designs, not in the context of mechanical energy extracted from the Plug Flow Reactor connected to impulse or reaction turbinesneeded to drive the generators directly. The efficiency of the Plug Flow Reactor reaches 90%. Acommon misconception that might form is the energy output of the Plug Flow Reactor compared tousing hydrogen-oxygen combustion as a flue gas where both may be expressed in BTU’s. Compared tothe 165 BTU's normally published in combustion tables, the Plug Flow Reactor yields well over 400BTU’s, a performance that is economically significant when evaluating the capacity to do mechanicalwork in turning a “peaking power” generator or pressurize a vessel. The reactor is also intrinsicallysafe or self limiting. The reaction will continue to be exothermic until it reaches a temperature that begins to disassociate water. This disassociation of water is the limiting factor for efficiency, at which point the “endothermic” reaction of disassociating water removes about 467 BTU's per mole. Why the published values were low appears to go at least as far back as work done Babcock & Wilcox whenconsidering hydrogen-oxygen fuels for use in boiler making. In fact, the figure of 165 BTU’s is given based upon an old calorimeter study where the temperature of water is measured after circulatingaround the flue until such time as all the water vapor condenses. The Plug Flow Reactor is essentiallynearly instantaneous in delivery of kinetic energy and more efficient in design than a boiler. Althoughit is reasonable to conclude that Hydrogen is a poor flue gas fuel, it is the best fuel, as theorized byLaval, when he proved the lightest fuel is the most efficient thruster.
Gustav had some success in using 
1
 
hydrogen-oxygen combustion directly in his turbine, with the annoying problem that it ranuncontrollably too fast. If Gustav had modern non-Newtonian electronic controllers, his problem mayhave been solved as demonstrated in the mathematics that follows.
 As can be seen below, the Plug Flow Reactor and Laval Nozzle are essentially made of pipethat is about 4 feet long and only an inch or two in diameter. The design varies non-linearly with outputrequirements and the geometry causes rate sensitivity. Consequently, an algorithm appears below tomake considerations and calculations easier to implement. In essence, the hotter the reaction, thegreater is the rate constant. The rate of reaction is also dependant upon the concentration of reactants.The basics of the design follow. The basics of experimental design (not included herein) to control thereactions follow the design.
2. The Design Proposal and Plug Flow Analysis
Figure 1. Plug Flow Reactor (Not to Scale)2
 
a. Reaction-
H
2
+ 2O
2
2H
2
OA + 2B 2C in variable form.Let Xa be the fraction converted to productLet v be the volumetric flow rateLet V be the volume of the reactor Let T be the time for one volume to come to reaction (approx V/v)3

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