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Nanotechnology Controlling Matteron atomic scale
Early history
The first time the ideas of nanotecgnologi wasintroduced was in 1950, when a physicist at Caltech,Richard Feynman, gave a talk at an AmericanPhysical Society meeting, called “There’s plenty of Room at the Bottom”. He never mentioned “nanotechnology”, but suggested that it could bepossible to precisely manipulate atoms andmolecules. He also thought that, in principle, itshould be possible to create “nano-scale “ machinesthrough billions of factories.In the end, Fayman’s talk has been viewed as thefirst academic talk that dealt with the main tenet of nanotechnology , the direct maniputation of individual atoms.
How small is one nanometer ?
One nanometer (nm) is one billionth , or 10
of a meter. By comparison, typicalcarbon-carbon bond lengths between these atoms in a molecule are in the range0.12 – 0.15 nm, and a DNA double helix has a diameter around 2 nm. On theother hand, the smallest cellular life form, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma,are around 200 nm in length.To put the scale in another contex, the comparative size of a nanometer to ameter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth.
Molecular nanotechnology
Sometimes it is called molecular manufacturing, anddescribes engineered nano systems, operating on themolecular scale. In1979, Eric Drexler encounteredFeynman’s talk on atomic manipulation and “nano-factories”.Feldman’s idea’s inspired Drexler to put theseconcepts into motion by expanding Feynman’s visionof molecular manufacturing with contemporarydevelopments in understanding protein function.As a result, the term was yet to be established, andthe field of nanotechnology was created.
Carbon fullerenes
Before the nanotechnology entry, the number of knowncarbon allotropes were limitid to grahite, diamond andamorphous carbon as soot and charcoal.In 1996. the Nobel Price in chemistry was awarded to Kroto,Curl ans Smalley for their roles in the discovery of what wascalled a C
- fulleren, a new kind of a carbon allotrope. The
was named after a noted architectual modeler,who popularized the geodesic dome.In the nature, fullerene C
, C
and C
molecules areproduced, and can be found hidden in soot, and formed bylightning discharges in the atmosphere.The form of these fullerene molecules resembles a soccerball of the type made of twenty hexagons and twelvepentagons. The nucleous diameter of a C
molecule isabout 0.71 nm.A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of carbon, inthe form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Spherical fullerenes are also called
and cylindrical ones are also called nanotube or buckytubes.Fullerenes are similar in structure to graphite, which is composed of stackedgraphene sheets of linked hexagonal rings, but they may also contain pentagonaland sometimes hexagonal rings.
Carbon nanotubes
Nanotubes are cylindrical fullerenes. Such tubesof carbon are only a few nm wide, but they canrange from less than a micrometer to severalmillimeters in length. They often has closedends, but can as well be open-ended. Theirunique molecular structure gives extraordinaryproperties, including high tensile strength, highelectrical conductivity , high ductility, highresistance to heat and relative chemicalinactivity. The use of carbon nanotubes in high-tensil cables required for a space elevator hasbeen proposed.These pictures show what is called single-wallednanotubes. They are an important variety of 

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