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DC Power Architecture

DC Power Architecture

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08/31/2010

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ICSET 2008
 
 Abstract 
 —The power quality (PQ) disturbances e.g. transientvoltages, voltage distortion, voltage sags and swells, overvoltages and under voltages, and voltage interruption arecaused of critical electronic component failures, resets, shortlifetimes and cascading failures to a whole data center systemoperation failures. The data center operation downtimes maycosts a million dollar per hour. The extensive internationalstandards, TIA-942, IEEE-493, IEEE-446, IEEE-1100, and IEC620040-3, recommend through fault tolerant designs to protectagainst the single point of failure (SPoF) throughout datacenter power distribution systems (DC-PDS). A newgeneralized approach is given to illustrate a better model toprotect a cleaning on power quality and SPoF. This researchproposes a new model of the optimum availability andinvestment tradeoffs for data center conceptual design andspectrum investigation with risk assessment of DC-PDS.
I.I
 NTRODUCTION
HE natural disaster and human made are the originalsources of power disturbances. The consequence costsof damage is not only costs for replacing equipment andlabor costs for fixing the problems but also reflects costs of system downtime and reputation for organization. Gardner group is presented the costs of brokerage operationdowntime per hour around $US 6.48Million [3]. However,the costs of reputation and business confidence may not beevaluated in number. Power quality disturbances come frommany sources e.g. lightning surge, surge from non-arcingelectrostatic discharges (ESD), non-linear equipment.Moreover, they have many type forms of power qualitycondition e.g. under voltage, over voltage, transient voltage,and voltage distortion [1]. When developing the criteria for  power quality protection, it is critical to consider the high-frequency phenomena of a lightning and ESD. Wiring andgrounding practices for the special construction, data center (DC), requires a serious risk to damage prevention.DC is unique and complex in power infrastructuresystems which are tough and take-time to repair. It isimportant to understand the effect of the power disturbanceson data center equipment and processes to resume system back to normal operation. A process interruption caused by power outage or transient voltage may require a completerestart or repair components that impact time to repair (TTR)or mean time to repair (MTTR) [10], [12], [15]. The moreobvious consequence is on data center system availabilityfor services or productions. The downtime cost models of data center are present by many researches [3], [9], [11].
Manuscript received July 15, 2008. Montri Wiboonrat is a Ph.D.candidate of Graduate School of Information Technology: Computer andEngineering Management, Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand.(mwiboonrat@gmail.com).
Data center power distribution system (DC-PDS) ismodeled to optimize objective functions between downtimecosts and investment devices, operation, and energyconsumption. The past data center or static planning, beforethe millennium, is considered only a single planning periodaccording to technologies and at point demands. Newdesign, or after TIA 942-2005, dynamic planning isconcentrated on optimization, efficiency, and utilization of  power effectiveness, space, reliability/ availability andinvestment.Many standards are contributed to support DC-PDSdesign model e.g. TIA 942-2005, IEEE 446-1995, IEEE493-2007, IEEE 1100-1999, IEC 62040-3-1999, ASHRAE,EN 1047-2. DC-PDS is widely practiced ad hoc methodinvolving the internal and external constraints of eachorganization. Risk acceptance of each business is varying bydowntime cost model [9], [11]. For example, bankingservice requires highest reliability, 99.9999% availability, of data center or close to zero downtime. Gas & Oil production plant may be able to stop operation data center a few hour  per year for overall maintenance systems. Increasing a levelof higher reliability/ availability means an increase in theinvestment of acquisition. This investment needs to be balanced with the cost of downtime and business reputation[11], [13].In this paper, researchers present a risk anatomy, whichcan help data center designers or operators to identify thesingle point of failure (SPoF) of DC-PDS and how toimprove power reliability with optimal investment on thelevel of risk acceptance. Moreover, this research isintegrated and applied the international standards [5], [6],[7], [8], [16] as a basis for minimum requirements. Risk zone assessment model of DC-PDS is performed of power distribution reliability to incorporate into overall objectivesfunction via downtime costs against with investment,operation, and efficiency.II.D
OWN
T
IME
C
OST
M
ODEL
Determine the company costs of outage are not the onlyones that lose revenue but also the loss to a company of wasting the time of employees who cannot get their work done during an outage.The loss of availability of data center directly affects the facility infrastructure’s bottom line sinceit takes a day to a week to get full recovery after a short-lived unplanned downtime. The two major factors affected by downtime cost depend on power outage frequency andduration occurrences.Businesses losses will justify the investment cost of datacenter Tier availability. Estimation of business losses per 
Risk Anatomy of Data Center Power Distribution Systems
Montri Wiboonrat,
 Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand 
T
674978-1-4244-1888-6/08/$25.00c
2008 IEEE
Authorized licensed use limited to: David Ibarra. Downloaded on February 2, 2009 at 20:30 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
 
hour should be compensated by forward of investment costthat can gain by return of investment (ROI) model shown asfollows [2], [11].
Costs Investment Costs Investment Costs Downtime Benifits  ROI 
=
)(
 Reputation
(
 R
) and
Goodwill 
(
G
) will be the hardestfactors that is difficult to calculate
 , subjective,
to be moneyvalues. It is depended on business segment and customer group impacted, as shown in (1).
ω  
: Frequency of interruption (occurrence per year)
: Duration of interruption (at least an hour per occurrence;
integer number 
)L : Cost of business lost per hour of occurrence(Estimated average costs of an hour of down time )R : Business losses in term of reputation and businessaccountability (Subjective)G : Lost reliable relation with partners and suppliers(Goodwill-Subjective)
 I 
Δ
: Cost tradeoffs during system reliability increasing
 I 
Δ
could be a vastly variation subject to component brands, component’s inherent characteristics (CIC), andsystem connectivity topology (SCT). Data center sitereliability/ availability is depended on the details of component selection (CIC), system connectivity topology(SCT) e.g. series-parallel, k-out of-n, bridge, and active-standby mode [13], [14], [15].
Avi : Increasing system availability of Tier.The correlation of data center investment and availabilityillustrates in Fig. 1. The Optimal DC availability rangediffers from business to business subject to levels of (1) and
)(
),(
i
 L f 
acceptant losses [11]. However, the simulationresult shown high investment will not gain high availability beyond the inverse availability point, as depicted in Fig. 1.
Tier ITier IITier IIITier IV -IV+
 
Optimal AvailabilityRangeUnder AvailabilityInverseAvailabilityOptimal AvailabilityPoint
UnavailabilityCostAvailability Levels
InverseAvailabilityPoint
Fig. 1. Optimum availability and investment tradeoffs [11]
 L
=
(Employees cost/hour * Employees’ affected byoutage) + (Avg. Rev./hour * Rev. affected by outage)+(Replaced or changed equipment costs + resume labor hours) +
=
ni
1
(Avg. Lawsuits/ hour* No. of Contract( 
i
 )) +(Business- Reputation lost to customers: Subjective) + (Lossof Goodwill to partners and suppliers: Subjective)
.Lost revenue per hour will differ from business to business, e.g. Brokerage operation $US6.45M, Credit cardauthorization $US2.6M, Ebay $US225K, Amazon.com$US180K, Cellular service activation $US41K, and ATMservice fees $US14K [3].The concern factors are depended on rationale tradeoff awareness, as shown in (1)
 ,
of each business typerequirements. The optimal point consideration of data center site availability and investment costs derived from the
 slope
as Fig. 1 together with the result from ROI.
 I  LG R
Δ++
)..(
ω  
(1)Business lost is not only depended on type of business butalso depends on time as seen in Figure 2. The relation for  business lost and ongoing time will be exponentialcorrelation as shown in (2). Example of international bank operates by time zone: Starting Point from Japan toAustralia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Thailand. Thetransactions between each country will transfer overlap bytime zone. Thus, the size effected, transactions from Japan toAustralia will start fist follow by Japan to Thailand, Japan toEngland and so on, of data center downtime will accumulateand increasing damage as a chain reaction as depicted in Fig.2, accumulation function
)(
),(
i
 L f 
.Assumption each down time starting by
1
ω  
and
equal or greater than 1 hour(s)
Fig. 2. Time dependency accumulation losses [11]
1
11
=
=
e L L f 
iii
,.)(
)(),(
ω  
(2)
),(
i
 L
: Time dependency accumulation losses.
675
Authorized licensed use limited to: David Ibarra. Downloaded on February 2, 2009 at 20:30 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
 
III.
ELIABILITY
A
SSUMPTION
M
ODEL
 A.Tier IV Data Center Mode
TIA 942- Tier IV data center is defined as a pre-model of fault tolerance for risk assessment from utility incomingthroughout loaded points, as depicted in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Tier IV Data Center Diagram [16]
 B.IEEE 493-2007, 2(N+1) Mode
To enhance the critical prevention sources, UPS, a systemrequires one out of N components. The design is shown the parallel power supplies to critical loaded from 2(N+1)separated and independent operation UPS with STS andmanual bypass. An annual availability of 2(N+1) is equal to99.99914% or probability of failure 16.49% during 5 years,as depicted in Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. IEEE 493, 2(N+1) Power Equipment [7]
C.Fault Tolerance DC-PDS Model 
Fault tolerance topology is the objective design toeliminate a single point of failure (SPoF) from DC-PDS.Design for cleaning power quality is mitigated by applying a power conditioning technology, as depicted in Fig. 5. Zerodowntime is the main proposes of data center operation.System maintenance without interrupting operation isdefined not only extended equipment life but also preventequipment failure before MTTF.IV.P
OWER 
Q
UALITY
Z
ONE
A
SSESSMENT
The researcher proposes fault tolerance analysis approachmodel.
 A.High Voltage: Zone 0
TIA 942- Tier IV, 99.995% uptime, is defined utility gridssupporting for this model are independent each other. Withthe second utility grid 95% of power quality (PQ) problemscan be avoided. Reliability of PQ is different from locationto location and country to country. Especially, whencompare between developing country and developedcountry. According to [9], Table I, a research is shown thereliability of PQ is only 99.74924% that means thedowntime per year equal to 21.96657 hours. The gap between 99.995% requirement and real life, PQ, 99.74924%is called
risk acceptance
. Natural disaster causes power outage that is uncontrollable and unpredictable.
TABLEIP
OWER 
Q
UALITY
D
ISRUPTIONS
[9]
 B.Low Voltage: Zone I, Main Distribution Board 
Transformers, diesel engines, and ATSs are defined ascritical components on this zone because the lowestreliability equipment is represented the lowest reliability of system. Diesel engine is the weakest MTBF on this model[7]. Since, diesel engine is the highest failure rate. Design toeliminate risk, the reliability, requires parallel system,2(N+1), to ensure the existing of power system. The rest of equipment is design for 2N parallel, A Side and B Side, asshown in Fig. 5-Zone I.
C.Low Voltage: Zone II, Uninterruptible Power Uni
This Zone II can define as mission critical operation for data center because the fist stage of power outage UPSs willcontinuous supply power to loads immediately [10], [12].UPS 2(N+1) is proposed to reduce reliability risk. Rid-through for power outages up to about 500 ms, this canhandle by flywheel for 15-20 seconds on A Side. If longer more than flywheel can handle, UPS + batteries on B Sideare still keeping recharging to loads.
676
Authorized licensed use limited to: David Ibarra. Downloaded on February 2, 2009 at 20:30 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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