—The power quality (PQ) disturbances e.g. transientvoltages, voltage distortion, voltage sags and swells, overvoltages and under voltages, and voltage interruption arecaused of critical electronic component failures, resets, shortlifetimes and cascading failures to a whole data center systemoperation failures. The data center operation downtimes maycosts a million dollar per hour. The extensive internationalstandards, TIA-942, IEEE-493, IEEE-446, IEEE-1100, and IEC620040-3, recommend through fault tolerant designs to protectagainst the single point of failure (SPoF) throughout datacenter power distribution systems (DC-PDS). A newgeneralized approach is given to illustrate a better model toprotect a cleaning on power quality and SPoF. This researchproposes a new model of the optimum availability andinvestment tradeoffs for data center conceptual design andspectrum investigation with risk assessment of DC-PDS.
HE natural disaster and human made are the originalsources of power disturbances. The consequence costsof damage is not only costs for replacing equipment andlabor costs for fixing the problems but also reflects costs of system downtime and reputation for organization. Gardner group is presented the costs of brokerage operationdowntime per hour around $US 6.48Million . However,the costs of reputation and business confidence may not beevaluated in number. Power quality disturbances come frommany sources e.g. lightning surge, surge from non-arcingelectrostatic discharges (ESD), non-linear equipment.Moreover, they have many type forms of power qualitycondition e.g. under voltage, over voltage, transient voltage,and voltage distortion . When developing the criteria for power quality protection, it is critical to consider the high-frequency phenomena of a lightning and ESD. Wiring andgrounding practices for the special construction, data center (DC), requires a serious risk to damage prevention.DC is unique and complex in power infrastructuresystems which are tough and take-time to repair. It isimportant to understand the effect of the power disturbanceson data center equipment and processes to resume system back to normal operation. A process interruption caused by power outage or transient voltage may require a completerestart or repair components that impact time to repair (TTR)or mean time to repair (MTTR) , , . The moreobvious consequence is on data center system availabilityfor services or productions. The downtime cost models of data center are present by many researches , , .
Manuscript received July 15, 2008. Montri Wiboonrat is a Ph.D.candidate of Graduate School of Information Technology: Computer andEngineering Management, Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand.(firstname.lastname@example.org).
Data center power distribution system (DC-PDS) ismodeled to optimize objective functions between downtimecosts and investment devices, operation, and energyconsumption. The past data center or static planning, beforethe millennium, is considered only a single planning periodaccording to technologies and at point demands. Newdesign, or after TIA 942-2005, dynamic planning isconcentrated on optimization, efficiency, and utilization of power effectiveness, space, reliability/ availability andinvestment.Many standards are contributed to support DC-PDSdesign model e.g. TIA 942-2005, IEEE 446-1995, IEEE493-2007, IEEE 1100-1999, IEC 62040-3-1999, ASHRAE,EN 1047-2. DC-PDS is widely practiced ad hoc methodinvolving the internal and external constraints of eachorganization. Risk acceptance of each business is varying bydowntime cost model , . For example, bankingservice requires highest reliability, 99.9999% availability, of data center or close to zero downtime. Gas & Oil production plant may be able to stop operation data center a few hour per year for overall maintenance systems. Increasing a levelof higher reliability/ availability means an increase in theinvestment of acquisition. This investment needs to be balanced with the cost of downtime and business reputation, .In this paper, researchers present a risk anatomy, whichcan help data center designers or operators to identify thesingle point of failure (SPoF) of DC-PDS and how toimprove power reliability with optimal investment on thelevel of risk acceptance. Moreover, this research isintegrated and applied the international standards , ,, ,  as a basis for minimum requirements. Risk zone assessment model of DC-PDS is performed of power distribution reliability to incorporate into overall objectivesfunction via downtime costs against with investment,operation, and efficiency.II.D
Determine the company costs of outage are not the onlyones that lose revenue but also the loss to a company of wasting the time of employees who cannot get their work done during an outage.The loss of availability of data center directly affects the facility infrastructure’s bottom line sinceit takes a day to a week to get full recovery after a short-lived unplanned downtime. The two major factors affected by downtime cost depend on power outage frequency andduration occurrences.Businesses losses will justify the investment cost of datacenter Tier availability. Estimation of business losses per
Risk Anatomy of Data Center Power Distribution Systems
Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand
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