106 A.Ansmann and D. Müller
of salt contained in seawater.
particles describe desert dustproduced in arid regions. The
component describesdesert dust that is transported over long distances, which leads tothe depletion of large particles.
are used to describesulfate found in Antarctic aerosol and the stratospheric backgroundaerosol.Table 4.1 lists some characteristics of important aerosol types usedin climate modeling. These aerosol types differ in their relative contri-bution of the various aerosol components. A detailed overview can befound elsewhere [1, 3]. On the one hand, these types span the averageconditions; on the other hand, they take account of extreme conditionsfor sensitivity studies. It has to be observed that actual measurementsmay show aerosol properties signiﬁcantly different from these aerosoltypes.Thethreedifferenttypesofcontinentalaerosolsdifferintheiramountof soot, which is considered as a parameter describing the inﬂuenceof anthropogenic activities. Furthermore, the overall concentration of particles strongly increases from continental clean to continental pol-luted conditions. The urban aerosol describes strong pollution in urbanareas. It has the highest concentration of particles, in particular, that
Properties of aerosol types 
Aerosol type (cm
m)Cont. clean 2600 0.247 0.972 0.709 1.10 1.42Cont. average 15,300 0.204 0.925 0.703 1.11 1.42Cont. polluted 50,000 0.150 0.892 0.698 1.13 1.45Urban 158,000 0.139 0.817 0.689 1.14 0.43Desert 2300 1.488 0.888 0.729 0.20 0.17Marit. clean 1520 0.445 0.997 0.772 0.12 0.08Marit. polluted 9000 0.252 0.975 0.756 0.41 0.35Marit. tropical 600 0.479 0.998 0.774 0.07 0.04Arctic 6600 0.120 0.887 0.721 0.85 0.89Antarctic 43 0.260 1.000 0.784 0.34 0.73Stratosphere(12–35km) 3 0.243 1.000 0.784 0.74 1.14
Number concentration is denoted by
. The effective radius
describes the mean size of theparticle ensemble. The single-scattering albedo
is deﬁned as the ratio of total scattering toextinction of the investigated particle ensemble. The asymmetry parameter
is a measure of lightscattered toward the forward direction compared with the light scattered toward the back direction.The Ångström exponent
 describes the spectral slope of the optical coefﬁcients. All num-bers hold for a relative humidity of 80%. Effective radius is calculated for 50% relative humidity.A further discussion of some of the parameters is given in Section 4.3.