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Shiva-The Cosmic Dancer

Shiva-The Cosmic Dancer

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01/21/2013

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Shiva as ‘cosmic dancer’: on Pallavaorigins for the Nataraja bronze
Sharada Srinivasan
Abstract
This paper explores the origins of the Nataraja cult in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. Thetrajectory of the dancing Shiva is traced: from the processional worship of metal icons outside thesanctum to the cultic elevation of the Nataraja bronze into the sanctum at Chidambaram.Archaeometallurgical, iconographic and literary evidence discussed shows that the Nataraja bronze,depicting Shiva’s
anandatandava
or ‘dance of bliss’, was a Pallava innovation (seventh to mid-ninthcentury), rather than tenth-century Chola as widely believed. That this formulation was informed of ‘cosmic’ or metaphysical connotations is also argued on the basis of the testimony of the hymns of Tamil saints.
Keywords
Nataraja; Shiva; bronze; Pallava; cosmic dance; archaeometallurgy; Tamil poems.
Introduction
More than other divinities of Hinduism’s trinity (including Brahma, the creator, andVishnu, the preserver), the icons of Shiva, the great destroyer, span a range of paradoxicalinterpretations: from the erotic to the ascetic, the dreadful to the sublime and the humanto the cosmic. Temple practice in late medieval Tamil Nadu followed the canon of SaivaSiddhanta worship, the
agamas
(Davis 2000: 10). Under the Cholas (tenththirteenthcentury), a dual form of Saivite worship thrived. Inside the sanctum, a static stone pillar orlingam was worshipped (which had both aniconic and phallic connotations). Portablemetal images (
utsava murtis
) were taken out of the sanctum in procession, including kineticdepictions of Shiva’s awesome dance of destruction.Nataraja, the subject of this paper, differs from other images of dancing Shiva in hisposture with the left leg extended across at hip level known as
bhujangatrasita karana
. Atthe extant twelfththirteenth century Nataraja temple complex at Chidambaram a unique
RWAR360308
(NT)
World Archaeology
Vol. 36(3): 432450
The Archaeology of Hinduism
#
2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd ISSN 0043-8243 print/1470-1375 onlineDOI: 10.1080/1468936042000282726821
 
dual form of worship reaches culmination in the innermost sanctum: of a three-foot-highmetal icon of Nataraja alongside an empty curtained space representing him as
akasa
orether. This depiction of Shiva as the
akasa lingam
or pillar of space/cosmos is the
Chidambaram Rahasya
or revelation of Chidambaram. This golden-roofed inner sanctumis called Chit-Sabha or Hall of Consciousness.This paper tackles three unresolved issues concerning the Nataraja bronze. The first isthe date of emergence of the Nataraja bronze and its worship at Chidambaram. This hasbeen uncertain since Hindu icons were rarely inscribed and are mainly dated with referenceto stone sculpture at inscribed temples. The earliest properly three-dimensional stoneNatarajas are found in temples built by the great Chola patroness, queen SembiyanMahadevi, such as the Kailasanathaswami temple,
c
.
AD
940, at the place named after her.Hence, Dehejia (1990: 456) speculated that the Nataraja bronze developed under her.However, this rules out the existence of earlier images.The second question concerns the original significance of the Nataraja bronze. AnandaCoomaraswamy (1924) put forth a lyrical interpretation drawn from thirteenth-centuryTamil Saiva Siddhantic texts composed around Chidambaram such as the Tirumantiramand Unmaivilakam. He interpreted the icon as Shiva’s
anandatandava
or cosmic dance of creation and destruction, which is also the dance of bliss after annihilating the ego. In thisform, the four-armed Nataraja exhibits five primordial acts or
panchakritya
: creationsymbolized by the drum in the rear right-hand, protection by the front right arm,dispelling of ignorance and ego by trampling the demon
muyalagan
(Tamil) or
apasmara
(Sanskrit) with his right foot, granting of solace by the crossed left arm, destruction by thefire in the rear left arm, while the ring of fire symbolizes perpetual cosmic cycles(Nagaswamy 1983: 62). Shivakami as consort inspires this cosmic activity.Coomaraswamy’s philosophical musings on the ‘cosmic dance of Shivahad wideappeal, even providing a post-modernist metaphor for savouring the implications of modern physics with Fritjof Capra (1976: 258) writing that ‘Shiva’s dance is the dance of sub-atomic particles’. However, several early Tamil hymns depict Shiva with a touch of morbidity as the lord of destruction, wandering and dancing at cremation grounds, albeitwith a starkly moving appeal. In a thought-provoking paper, Kaimal (1999) counteredthat there is a disconnection between Coomaraswamy’s metaphysical interpretationsbased on thirteenth-century texts and Nataraja’s original significance for the Cholas. Sheargued that the icon was propagated for its martial implications, traceable to the worshipof the Tamil goddess of war, Kottravai, with an ecstatic victory dance with lifted leg.The third question is whether the Nataraja icon was originally significantly understoodin terms of a cosmic or transcendental dimension. In the hymns of Saivite Nayanmarsaints of the seventheighth centuries, Chidambaram was known as Tillai with a templeto the dancing Shiva known as Cirrambalam or Little Hall (Younger 1995: 14, 84).Younger (ibid.) suggests that it was the later Sanskritization of this word to‘Chidambaram’ (
chit
: consciousness;
ambaram
: cosmos) which led to Nataraja’sidentification as the cosmic dancer/consciousness, symbolically depicted as the
akasalingam
or space/cosmic pillar.However, the studies cited above do not significantly take into account pre-Chola Tamilevidence, which forms the focus of this paper. My purpose here is to show that theNataraja bronze emerged under the Pallavas (
c.
seventhmid-ninth century) from
Shiva as ‘cosmic dancer’ 
433
 
iconographic evidence and archaeometallurgical studies on 130 south Indian metal icons(Srinivasan 1996, 1999, 2001). On the basis of the writings of Appar, Manikkavachakarand poetess Karaikkal Ammaiyar (sixthninth century), it also argues that ametaphorical interpretation of the icon, linked to the cosmic dance and the consciousness,was already in vogue prior to a more beatific phase of thirteenth-century worship to whichit is usually attributed.
Early material evidence in relation to Saivism
Aspects that later came to be associated with Saivite worship are among the most archaicof South Asian cultic expressions. In the context of Harappan sites (
c
. 26001800
BC
), forinstance, several objects resembling ‘lingam’ motifs have been found such as a 4-foot-high,broken, bulbous-ended column from Dholavira, while a seated trident-headed ‘ithyphallic’figure on Indus seals has been compared to Shiva as meditating ascetic (Kenoyer 1998:112; O’Flaherty 1997: 8
1
; Settar 1973: 38). However, in peninsular India, the earliestknown overtly ‘Hindu’ stone icon may be a vital 5-foot-high Satavahana depiction fromGudimallam in Andhra Pradesh which dates to
c.
the secondfirst century
BC
. It is of astanding male within a bulbous-ended linga and strikingly exemplifies the merging of aniconic and anthropomorphic manifestations of Shiva. His club identifies him asLakulisa, Shiva as ascetic, seen in later (sixthninth-century) peninsular Indian sculpture,whose ithyphallic aspect connotes asceticism and conserved procreative potentialities,rather than mere eroticism (O’Flaherty 1973: 80, 8). The grimacing dwarf demon underShiva’s foot too is a precursor to seventh-century Pallava sculpture.Other early icons of Shiva come from Bactrian and Kushan coinage (
c
. first century
BC
 – third century
AD
) from Afghanistan and Pakistan. A copper seal from Sirkap has a legend
Sivarakshita
in Brahmi and Kharoshti beside a figure with club and trident(Sivaramamurti 1974: 168). A gold double stater of Kushan King Kanishka III,
c
.240–50
BC
, in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Errington and Cribb 1992: 66, 70)has an ithyphallic deity identified as Shiva beside a bull, with trident, water pot and lionskin (of Greek god Heracles), inscribed ‘Wesho’ in Bactrian after the Zoroastrian windgod.While some early copper alloy figurines are known from the Tamil region, such as a tiny‘mother goddess’ from Adichanallur,
c
. 800
BC
, and a Buddha from Kaveripattinam,
c
.firstthird century
AD
, it was the ascendancy of Puranic Hindu worship over theheterodox faiths of Buddhism and Jainism by the latter first millennium which resulted ina dramatic spurt in casting solid religious icons.
Exploring the presence of Nataraja in the Pallava period
On Pallava stone sculpture relating to Nataraja
The Pallavas, originally governors of Andhra dynasties, ruled in the Tamil region fromabout
AD
550 until their overthrow by Aditya Chola around
AD
890. Whereas a few earlier434
Sharada Srinivasan

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