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Physics Formulas

# Physics Formulas

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04/25/2011

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ONE DIMENSIONAL MOTIONOne dimensional motionBy one dimension we mean that the body is moving only in one plane and in a straightline. Like if we roll a marble on a flat table, and if we roll it in a straight line (not easy!),then it would be undergoing one-dimensional motion.There are four variables which put together in an equation can describe this motion.These are Initial Velocity (u); Final Velocity (v), Acceleration (a), Distance Traveled (s)and Time elapsed (t). The equations which tell us the relationship between these variablesare as given below.v = u + atv2 = u2 + 2as click for calculator s = ut + 1/2 at2average velocity = (v + u)/2Armed with these equations you can do wonderful things like calculating a carsacceleration from zero to whatever in 60 seconds !!TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL MOTIONScalar or Vector?To explain the difference we use two words: 'magnitude' and 'direction'. By magnitudewe mean how much of the quantity is there. By direction we mean is this quantity havinga direction which defines it. Physical quantities which are completely specified by justgiving out there magnitude are known as scalars. Examples of scalar quantities aredistance, mass, speed, volume, density, temperature etc. Other physical quantities cannot be defined by just their magnitude. To define them completely we must also specify their direction. Examples of these are velocity, displacement, acceleration, force, torque,momentum etc.Vector AdditionParallelogram law of vector additionIf we were to represent two vectors magnitude and direction by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram. The resultant can then be represented in magnitude and direction by thediagonal. This diagonal is the one which passes through the point of intersection of thesetwo sides.Resolution of a Vector It is often necessary to split a vector into its components. Splitting of a vector into itscomponents is called resolution of the vector. The original vector is the resultant of these

components. When the components of a vector are at right angle to each other they arecalled the rectangular components of a vector.Rectangular Components of a Vector As the rectangular components of a vector are perpendicular to each other, we can domathematics on them. This allows us to solve many real life problems. After all the bestthing about physics is that it can be used to solve real world problems. Note: As it is difficult to use vector notations on the computer word processors we willcoin our own notation. We will show all vector quantities in bold. For example 'A' will bescalar quantity and 'A' will be a vector quantity.Let Ax and Ay be the rectangular components of a vector AthenA = Ax + Ay this means that vector A is the resultant of vectors Ax and AyA is the magnitude of vector A and similarly Ax and Ay are the magnitudes of vectorsAx and AyAs we are dealing with rectangular components which are at right angles to each other.We can say that:A = (Ax + Ay)1/2Similarly the angle Q which the vector A makes with the horizontal direction will beQ = tan-1 (Ax / Ay)LAWS OF MOTION Newton's laws of motionThrough Newton's second law, which states: The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the net unbalanced force and inversely proportional to the body's mass, arelationship is established between Force (F), Mass (m) and acceleration (a). This is of course a wonderful relation and of immense usefulness.F = m x a click for calculator Knowing any two of the quantities automatically gives you the third !!MomentumMomentum (p) is the quantity of motion in a body. A heavy body moving at a fastvelocity is difficult to stop. A light body at a slow speed, on the other hand can bestopped easily. So momentum has to do with both mass and velocity.

p = mv click for calculator Often physics problems deal with momentum before and after a collision. In such casesthe total momentum of the bodies before collision is taken as equal to the totalmomentum of the bodies after collision. That is to say: momentum is conserved.ImpulseThis is the change in the momentum of a body caused over a very short time. Let m bethe mass and v and u the final and initial velocities of a body.Impulse = Ft = mv - mu click for calculator WORK ENERGY POWER Work and energyAs we know from the law of conservation of energy: energy is always conserved.Work is the product of force and the distance over which it moves. Imagine you are pushing a heavy box across the room. The further you move the more work you do! If Wis work, F the force and x the distance then.W = FxEnergy comes in many shapes. The ones we see over here are kinetic energy (KE) and potential energy (PE)Transitional KE = ½ mv2Rotational KE = ½ Iw2here I is the moment of inertia of the object (a simple manner in which one canunderstand moment of inertia is to consider it to be similar to mass in transitional KE) aw is angular velocityGravitational PE = mgh click for calculator where h is the height of the objectElastic PE = ½k L 2where k is the spring constant ( it gives how much a spring will stretch for a unit force)and L is the length of the spring. Simple isn't it!!Power Power (P) is work( W) done in unit time (t).