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Human Cloning

Human Cloning

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Published by: azroy91 on Mar 06, 2010
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About a decade ago, Scientist at Roslin Institute from Scotland surprised the entire worldwhen the announced that they have cloned an adult sheep on February 22, 1997, “Dolly”,(Dudley 9). Scientists shocked the world because many believed that it was impossible to produce a clone from a donor cell taken from an adult rather than an, embryo, manyresulting embryos had died before (Dudley 11). Dolly was created because, scientist atthe Roslin Institute wanted to research on the reliable reproduction of animals geneticallymodified to produce therapeutic proteins in their milk.Researchers want to clone humanssimply because; scientists believe by the cloning of humans, they believe that they will beable to find many cures to human disease (Dudley 11). Human cloning is banned in theU.S simply because President George W. Bush and his White House staff said,“unequivocally opposed to the cloning of human beings ether for reproduction or for research”, it also stated that “The moral and ethical issues posed by human cloning are profound and can not be ignored in the quest for scientific discovery”.This made them pass many laws such as, The Human Cloning and Stem Research Act of 2003, which banned all of human cloning a research.Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing, or previouslyexisting, human being or clone tissue from that individual. There are different types of human cloning are recombinant DNA technology, or DNA cloning, reproductive cloning,and therapeutic cloning (Dudley 7). Recombinant DNA technology (DNA Cloning) is thetransfer of a DNA fragment of interest from one organism to a self-replicating geneticelement such as bacterial plasmid.Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generatean animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously No one knows what type of and how much cloning is allowed. Many people believe thatcloning is unrestricted and scientists can attempt it as often as they would like. Inaddition, the publics' lacks of knowledge is kept high due to scientists' fear to share theoutcomes of any cloning experiments. Scientists are hesitant to share their outcomes because they think that it will scare the public. To them, the more afraid the public is,the less likely they are to tolerate it(Gibbs, 48). Some pro-life lawmakers do not want fears about cloning to stop other kinds of stem-cell research that do not entail the manufacturing of embryos. Therefore,lawmakers want stem-cell research, but do not want whole cloning. Again this makeslaws too broad, unrestricted, and not able to understand. If lawmakers cannot decidewhether cloning is right or wrong, who will? At the present date, there are only three proposed bills that federally restrict certain forms of cloning. Along with Illinois, sevenother states have proposed a bill to ban the cloning of an entire individual, regardless of funding sources. A substantial amount of cloning controversies come to what types of cloning should be allowed. Lawmakers fear banning cloning because then they wouldhave to face the decision to include stem-cell research or not.This problem has put lawmakers' decisions on cloning at a halt, causing the public to beunsure and to believe that cloning is unrestricted. What are both positive and negativeeffects on human cloning?In the past few years, the topic of cloning has been in the news a lot. It is a verycontroversial issue, with many opposing viewpoints. While some find it acceptable,others object for religious reasons. A big concern is the possibility of abuse of this new
 
technology. One of the big questions is "Where will we stop?" We may start by justexperimenting and studying, but then what? Manufacturing human bodies for spare parts? No one can be sure where it will stop. The Supreme court says that everyone has the rightto make their own reproductive decisions without government interference, but now it is proposing bans on human cloning. These bans prevent the very research needed to makecloning safe (Eibert). So, it seems that the government is not giving human cloning achance. There are many benefits to cloning in the fields of fertility, organ transplants, andfighting disease. Although there are many benefits, the possible effects and moralconsiderations are too great for us to continue experimentation.BenefitsOne of the major benefits of cloning technology is improvement in the field of fertility. Invitro fertilization only has a success rate of about 10%. To improve effectiveness, doctorscould clone embryos, and the success rate could drastically increase (Masci 413).Another benefit in the field of fertility is that parents unable to conceive naturally, evenwith in vitro, or people too old to conceive, could still have a genetically related child(Masci 413-414). With cloning, egg and sperm would not be necessary for reproduction, because any body cell would work (Eibert). The resulting offspring would actually be areplica of one parent (Masci 413-414). Other benefits to using cloning come in the fieldof fighting disease. When genes are not in use, they become dormant. In order for cloningto take place, all genes must be active. Discovering how genes are turned on and off could lead to treatment for different cancers (Masci 414).Human cloning is possible but also dangerous to society. One day during an assembly inMarch 1977, a heated debate began over the topic of human cloning. Both sides weregetting very involved in the argument. Suddenly a group of protestors stormed the stage.They were protesting human cloning while chanting, "We shall not be cloned!" Duringthe protest the group held up a sign that said: "We will create the perfect race – Adolf Hitler" (Lester and Hefley 55). The group was right in protesting, human cloning willnegatively affect society.The background of human cloning goes back many years. First, people tried to just clone plants. Once that was accomplished scientist started to clone small animals such asrodents and insects. The first cloned animal was a mouse. The scientist took the egg of awhite mouse and joined it with the sperm of a black mouse and then put the egg into thewomb of a brown mouse. This was a breakthrough in the advancement of cloning.Scientist kept experimenting and eventually were coming up with new ways to clone andalso cloning different types of animals.The political background of human cloning is intriguing. Heated debates have taken placeover the time. Politicians and even regular people have argued whether we should or should not clone human beings. Often times these debates will go on for hours on end.There are good points to both sides of the story but more often than not the people on theside of banning human cloning win. George Bush, along with many other politicalleaders is against the cloning of humans. They have even banned it in the United States of America.

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