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Fundamental Physical Geography

Fundamental Physical Geography

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Published by M.IMRAN
Complete Book of Geography...!
For all..just freely download and read it...!
Complete Book of Geography...!
For all..just freely download and read it...!

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: M.IMRAN on Mar 06, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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This unit deals with 
Geography as an integrating discipline; as a science of spatial attributes 
Branches of geography; importance of physical geography 
ou have studied geography as one of thecomponents of your social studies courseupto the secondary stage. You arealready aware of some of the phenomena of geographical nature in the world and itsdifferent parts. Now, you will study ‘Geography’as an independent subject and learn about thephysical environment of the earth, humanactivities and their interactive relationships. Therefore, a pertinent question you can ask at this stage is — Why should we study geography? We live on the surface of the earth.Our lives are affected by our surroundings inmany ways. We depend on the resources tosustain ourselves in the surrounding areas.Primitive societies subsisted on ‘natural meansof subsistence’, i.e. edible plants and animals. With the passage of time, we developedtechnologies and started producing our foodusing natural resources such as land, soil and water. We adjusted our food habits andclothing according to the prevailing weather conditions. There are variations in the naturalresource base, technological development,adaptation with and modification of physicalenvironment, social organisations and culturaldevelopment. As a student of geography, youshould be curious to know about all thephenomena which vary over space. You learnabout the diverse lands and people. Youshould also be interested in understanding thechanges which have taken place over time.Geography equips you to appreciate diversity and investigate into the causes responsible for creating such variations over time and space. You will develop skills to understand the globeconverted into maps and have a visual senseof the earth’s surface. The understanding andthe skills obtained in modern scientifictechniques such as GIS and
computer cartography 
equip you to meaningfully contribute to the national endeavour for development.Now the next question which you may liketo ask is — What is geography? You know that earth is our home. It is also the home of many other creatures, big and small, which live onthe earth and sustain. The earth’s surface isnot uniform. It has variations in its physicalfeatures. There are mountains, hills, valleys,plains, plateaus, oceans, lakes, deserts and wilderness. There are variations in its socialand cultural features too. There are villages,cities, roads, railways, ports, markets andmany other elements created by human beingsacross the entire period of their culturaldevelopment. This variation provides a clue to theunderstanding of the relationship between thephysical environment and social/culturalfeatures. The physical environment hasprovided the stage, on which human societiesenacted the drama of their creative skills withthe tools and techniques which they inventedand evolved in the process of their culturaldevelopment. Now, you should be able toattempt the answer of the question posedearlier as to “What is geography”? In very simple words, it can be said that geography is the description of the earth. The term
was first coined by 
,a Greek scholar (276-194 BC.). The word has been derived from two roots from Greek language
(earth) and

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