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Mary Ainsworth Theory a Strange Situation In

Mary Ainsworth Theory a Strange Situation In

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Published by: zakiranz on Mar 06, 2010
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Mary Ainsworth TheoryA Strange Situation
In the 1960s, Ainsworth devised a procedure, called
 A Strange Situation
, to observeattachment relationships between a caregiver and child.In this procedure of the strange situation the child is observed playing for 20 minuteswhile caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room, recreating the flow of thefamiliar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives. The situation varies instressfulness and the child's responses are observed. The child experiences thefollowing situations:1.Parent and infant are introduced to the experimental room.2.Parent and infant are alone. Parent does not participate while infant explores.3.Stranger enters, converses with parent, then approaches infant. Parent leavesinconspicuously.
First separation episode: Stranger's behaviour is geared to that of infant.5.First reunion episode: Parent greets and comforts infant, then leaves again.6.Second separation episode: Infant is alone.
Continuation of second separation episode: Stranger enters and gears behaviour to that of infant.8.Second reunion episode: Parent enters, greets infant, and picks up infant;stranger leaves inconspicuously.
Four aspects of the child's behavior are observed:
1.The amount of exploration (e.g. playing with new toys) the child engages inthroughout.2.The child's reactions to the departure of its caregiver.
The stranger aniexty (when the baby is alone with the stranger).
The childs reunion behaviour with its caregiver.
On the basis of their behaviors, the children were categorized into three groups, with afourth added later. Each of these groups reflects a different kind of attachmentrelationship with the caregiver.
Secure attachment
A child who is securely attached to its mother will explore freely while the mother ispresent, will engage with strangers, will be visibly upset when the mother departs, andhappy to see the mother return. Will not engage with stranger if mother is not in theroom.Securely attached children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of asecure base to return to in times of need (also known as "rapprochement", meaning inFrench"bring together"). When assistance is given, this bolsters the sense of securityand also, assuming the mother's assistance is helpful, educates the child in how to copewith the same problem in the future. Therefore, secure attachment can be seen as themost adaptive attachment style. According to some psychological researchers, a childbecomes securely attached when the mother is available and able to meet the needs of the child in a responsive and appropriate manner. Others have pointed out that thereare also other determinants of the child's attachment, and that behavior of the parent may in turn be influenced by the child's behavior.
Anxious-resistant insecure attachment
A child with an anxious-resistant attachment style is anxious of exploration and of strangers, even when the mother is present. When the mother departs, the child isextremely distressed. The child will be ambivalent when she returns - seeking to remainclose to the mother but resentful, and also resistant when the mother initiates attention.When reunited with the mother, the baby may also hit or push his mother when sheapproaches and fail to cling to her when she picks him up.According to some psychological researchers, this style develops from a motheringstyle which is engaged but on the mother's own terms. That is, sometimes the child'sneeds are ignored until some other activity is completed and that attention is sometimesgiven to the child more through the needs of the parent than from the child's initiation.
Anxious-avoidant insecure attachment
A child with an anxious-avoidant attachment style will avoid or ignore the caregiver -showing little emotion when the caregiver departs or returns. The child may run awayfrom his caregiver when they approach and fail to cling to them when they pick him up.The child will not explore very much regardless of who is there. Strangers will not betreated much differently from the caregiver. There is not much emotional rangedisplayed regardless of who is in the room or if it is empty.This style of attachment develops from a care-giving style which is more disengaged.The child's needs are frequently not met and the child comes to believe thatcommunication of needs has no influence on the caregiver.
Disorganised/disoriented attachment
A fourth category was added by Ainsworth's colleague Mary Main
and Ainsworthaccepted the validity of this modification
.A child may cry during separation but avoid the mother when she returns or mayapproach the mother, then freeze or fall to the floor. Some show stereotyped behaviour,rocking to and fro or repeatedly hitting themselves. Main and Hesse
found that most of the mothers of these children had suffered major losses or other trauma shortly beforeor after the birth of the infant and had reacted by becoming severely depressed
. Infact, 56% of mothers who had lost a parent by death before they completed high schoolsubsequently had children with disorganised attachments
Kesan Perapatan Terhadap Sosio- Emosi kanak kanak
a) Perapatan penting kepada semua manusia. Bayi yang lahir perlukan jagaan daripadaorang dewasa sama ada untuk mendapatkan makanan, membersihkan diri ataumendapatkan perlindungan emosi. Kemesraan, kasih sayang, penjagaan danperlindungan yang diberikan oleh ibu bapa atau penjaga bukan sahaja membantudalam proses perkembangan kognitif, malah mempengaruhi perkembangan sosioemosidan perkembangan moral.

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