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Table Of Contents

The Linguistic Bases of Translation
Purpose of this Book
Saussure’s Theory of Language
The Speech Community
The Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis: Linguistic Determinism
Linguistic Relativity
Structure of the Book, and Summary
Approaching a Text
The Translator’s Role as ‘Secret Agent’
Text Types
Culture Infused in Language
Culture Detachable from Language
Intermediate Summary
Acceptability and Competence: Strategic Translation Decisions
Translation Loss and Compensation
Some Genuine Examples of Loss and Compensation
Translation Issues at the Word Level
The Word and the Morpheme
Word Categories
Inflectional Morphology: Verb Inflection
Translation Issues at the Morphological Level: Derivation
Lexical and Grammatical Words
Translation Issues Relating to Word Cohesion
Complex Words
Denotation and Connotation
Style and Register
False Friends
Words in Combination
Grammatical Paradigms
Lexical Paradigms and Polysemy
Lexical Paradigms and Synonymy
Lexical Paradigms and Hyponymy
The Interaction of Synonymy, Polysemy and Hyponymy
Lexical Paradigms and Antonymy
Collocation: The Tendency of Words to Co-Occur Regularly
Attitudinal Adjectives
Word compounds
Figurative Expressions
The Clause
The Phrase
Translation of Phrase Function Rather than Structure
Absolute constructions
Elliptical Constructions
Emphasis within the Sentence
Idiomatic Constructions
The Passive
Structural False Friends
Verbs used Intransitively
Non-Standard Syntax
Translation Types and Procedures
Literal Translation
Linguistic Transposition
Equivalence, or Pragmatic Translation
Adaptation, or Cultural Transposition
Exegetic Translation
Gist Translation
Non-Translation, or Compression
General Comments on Astington’s Categories
Ordering of Elements Within the Sentence
Types of Procedure: Cultural or Linguistic?
Some Miscellaneous Issues
Translating Humour
The Text Level
Improving the Source Text
Coherence and Cohesion
Anaphora, Cataphora
Translating Coherence and Cohesion
Multiple Equivalence
The Translation Commentary
Example of a Translation Commentary
Concluding Remarks
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Nigel Armstrong - Translation, Linguistics, Culture: A French–English Handbook

Nigel Armstrong - Translation, Linguistics, Culture: A French–English Handbook

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Published by: Zennep Zoynop on Mar 07, 2010
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