Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Monera Include Organisms That Have a Very

Monera Include Organisms That Have a Very

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,773|Likes:
Published by FauzanRiz
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera

More info:

Published by: FauzanRiz on Mar 07, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

09/24/2010

pdf

text

original

 
Moneraincludeorganismsthathaveaverysimplestructurethatiscomposedofprimitivecells,whichareprakariotik.Tuesprakariotikisthecorematerialofcellsthathavenotterlidungibycoreorkariotekamembrane.BelongtotheMoneraarebekterigroupandthebluealgaeorChyanophyta.I.BacteriaIntheclassification,thesecreaturesaregroupedintotheworldofplants,sub-divisionsidesSchyzomycetesorfungi,becausebreeddivide.Inthelatestclassification,bacteriabelongingtothekingdomMonera.A.ThecharacteristicsandnatureofBacteriaTobeabletoproperlystudythebacteriaweneedtorecognizethecharacteristicsandnature.1.BacterialcharacteristicsThebacteriaisacreaturewhorenikhascharacteristicsasfollows:1.Bodycomposedofasinglebacterialcell(unisel).Livingalone(solitary)andsomearelivingingroups(colonies).Bodysizeinmicronunits,largerthanviruses.Towatchhimthetoolsneededintheformofamicroscope.2.Bacterialcellsdonothavechloroplasts,whichappeartransparentortranslucent.Becausedonothavechloroplasts,bacteriacannotdeveloptheirownfoodsubstancewiththehelpofsunlightenergy.However,thereareseveraltypesofbacteriathathaveapigment/dyesuchaschloroplasts,whichcanperformphotosynthesis.Therefore,thesebacteriaarefotoautotrop.Thereisalsoabacteriumthathasnopigment,butcansynthesizetheirownnutrientsbyusingchemicalenergyinthemedium,calledkemoautotropbacteria.3.Bacteriadonotbreedinmating/asexually,bysplitting.4.Bacterialiveeverywhere,fromthetropicstopolarregions,rangingfromlowlandtomountaintop.Therearefree-living,parasitic,andsaprofitothers.2.BacteriaformBasedontheshape,thebacteriaaredividedintothree,namelybacteriaroundlikeaball(kokus),oracylindricalrod(bacillus),andlikespiral(sprillium).Formoredetails,seethefollowingpicture!1.KokusArebacteriaKokusroundlikeaball.Basedonthecolony,kokuscouldbeclassifiedinto5types:1.Monokokus,theball-shapedbacteriathatliveindependentlyorsolitary.2.Diplokokus,theball-shapedbacteriathatlivealwaysinpairs,eachpairconsistingoftwobacteria.3.Tetrakokus,namely,roundbacteriathatliveingroupsandeachgroupconsistsofthefourbacteria.4.Sarkina,theball-shapedbacteriathatliveingroupsandeachgroupconsistedofeightbacteriathatformthestructurelikeacube.5.Streptococcus,bacteriathatiscoupledspherical-likechaincoupling.6.Staphylococcal,whichisshapedlikeaballofbacteriaandclusteredlikegrapes.2.Bacillus(bacillus)Basilisabacteriumshapedlikeacylinderorasmalltrunk.Shapedbacteriacouldbeclassifiedintothree,namely:1.Monobasilus,therod-shapedbacteriathatliveindependentlyorsolitary.2.Diplobasilus,therod-shapedbacteriathatliveinpairsoftwo-two.
 
3.Streptobasilus,therod-shapedbacteriathatformachain.3.Spiril(spirillum)Spirilisthebacteriumthathastheformlikeaspiral,curved,orcurved.Whichincludesformsofthisbacteriumisvibrion,thebacteriathatisshapedlikeacommapunctuation.3.StructureofbacteriaBodyconsistsofasinglebacterialcell.Bacterialcellsresemblingplantcells.Thepartsofthecellconsistsofabacterialcellwall,plasmamembrane,andcytoplasm.1.CellwallisstrongenoughpartsandHemicelluloseiscomposedofsubstances.Cellwallfunctionisasaprotectorofthebodybacteria,whilegivingyourbodyshape.2.Plasmamembraneintheinnercellwall,isamembranelipoproteinthatservesasagatewaysubstanceintooroutintoandfromthebacterialcell.3.Foundinthecytoplasmoftheplasmamembrane.inthissectiontherearevariousorganellesthatserveastheexecutoroflifeactivities,suchascellularrespiration,synthesisofthecell,andothers.Inthemiddleofthecytoplasmarethecoreingredientsthatarenotprotectedbythemembranecore.Atthecorematerialshavechromosomes.4.ToolMotionbacteriaSomestrainsofbacteriathatcanbemovedbymeansofawhiporflagelumfeathers.Basedflagelumnyanumberandlocation,thebacteriacanbegroupedintofive,namely:1.atrik,iebacteriathatdonothaveflagelum,2.montrik,thebacteriathathasoneofendflagelumbody.3.amfitrik,thebacteriathathasfalgelumtwogroupsrespectivelyintheedgeofhisbody.4.lopotrik,whichhasagroupofbacteriathatflagelumatoneendofthebody.5.peritrik,thebacteriathathastheentiresurfaceflagelumbody.5.FoodbacteriaBasedonhowtoobtainfood,thebacteriacanbedividedintotwo,namelyheterotropbacteriaandbacteriaautrotrop.1.BacteriaheterotropHeterotropbacteriaarebacteriathatcannotsynthesizetheirownfoodsubstances.So,thefooddependonotherorganisms.Therearebacteriathatobtaintheirfoodfromotherorganismsrestofthedead.Thistypeofbacteriacalledsaprofitbacteria.Thereisalsoafoodbacteriaobtaineddirectlyfromotherorganisms.Thistypeofbacteriacalledbacterialparasites.Thereisaparasiticbacteriainanimals,plants,andhumans.Bacteriathatrideinhumansisnotalwaysharmfultohumanhealth.Forexample,Escherichiacolibacteriathatliveinthethickintestine.ThesebacteriahelpdecomposefoodscrapsandalsohelptheformationofvitaminKisessentialforbloodclotting.Bacteriathatdonotcausediseaseinhumanscalledapatogenbacteria.Insteadofridingalotofbacterialiveinhumansandcausediseasearecalledpathogens.2.BacteriaautotrofAutotrofbacteriaarebacteriathatcanmakehisownfoodsubstances.Tocompilethesenutrients,thebacterianeedenergy.Basedontheuseofenergysources,autotrofbacteriacanbegroupedintotwo,namelyfotoautotrofandkemoautotrof.1.Fotoautotrofbacteriaarebacteriathatcansynthesizetheirownfoo
 
dsubstancesbyusingsunlightenergy.Examplesofpurplebacteriagroup(bakteriopurpurin)andgreenbacteria(bakterioklorofil).2.Kemoautotrofbacteriaarebacteriathatcansynthesizetheirownfoodsubstancesusingchemicalenergy.Examplesincludebacteriakemoautotrofironbacteria,sulfurbacteria,andbacterialsubstanceslimp(Nitrosomonas,Nitrosococcus,Nitobacter).6.RespiratorybacterialBacteriacanbedividedintotwogroups,namelybacteriaaerobicandanaerobicbacteria.1.Aerobicbacteriaarebacteriathatrequireoxygenintheirlivesarefreetobreakthesubstanceinthemedium.Thebacteriaofthistypeareoftencalledbakteriobligataerobe.Aerobicbacteriathatarehappytoliveinmoistenvironmentsandenoughair.Examplesofaerobicbacteriaincludebacteriathatcausestuberculosis(Mycobacteriumtuberculosis)Nitrosomonas,NitrosococcusandNitrobacter.2.Anaerobicbacteriaarebacteriathatinlifeorinbreakingthesubstancethatdoesnotrequirefreeoxygen.Thesebacteriaareoftencalledobligateanaerobicbacteria.Tobreakdownthefoodsubstancesinthemedium,thebacteriaexcretecertaintypesoffermen.ExamplesofanaerobicbacteriasuchasMicrococcusdenitrificansusedtolivingontheland-richbutpoorinsubstancenitricoxygen.IntheseconditionsdescribeMicrococcusdenitrificanssubstanceNH3andHNO3intoO2.Meanwhile,Clostridiumtetaniisabacteriathatcausestetanus.7.BacterialreproductionGenerally,bacteriareproduceasexually,bysplittingorbinarysplitting(divisiononecellintotwodaughtercells).Bacterialcelldivisionincludingdivisionamitosis,whichissimple.Howtogenerativereproductionofbacteriaisoftencalledparaseksual.Paraseksualplaceinthreeways,namelytransformation,conjugation,andtransduction.1.TransformationisthetransferofsomegeneticmaterialintheformofANDorgenesfromonebacterialcelltoanothertypeofbacteriawithacomplexphysiologicalprocesses.2.Conjugationisbergandengnyatwobacteria(+and-)toformabridgeforthetransferofgeneticmaterial.3.Transductionisthetransferofgeneticmaterialbymeansofviruses.Inidealconditions,bacteriawilldivideevery20minutes.Thus,canbecalculatedhowmanytimesadayabacterialcellcandivide.Inlessfavorableconditions,somebacteriawilldie.But,thereareseveraltypesofbacteriathatwillsurvive,namelybymakingastrongwallcalledacyst.Bacteriaareintheformofcysts,asporecore.Becausethesporesarestoredinthestrongwallofthecystisoftencalledsporesendospora.Inastateasendospora,bacteriaarenotactiveandcansurvivefor50years.Unlikethesporesoffungi,mosses,andferns,bacterialsporesusefultodefendthemselvesfromenvironmentalconditionsarenotfavorable,whilefungalspores,mosses,andfernsareforbreeding.8.BacterialgrowthBacterialgrowthinfluencedbyfactorsasfollows:1.TemperatureOptimumtemperatureforbacterialgrowthisbetween270-3000C.However,therearebacteriathatgrowwellattemperatureslowerorhigherthantheoptimumtemperatureisaverage.2.HumidityBacteriacangrowwellinhumidenvironmentsorhighwatercontent.3.SunlightSunlight,especiallyultravioletlightcankillbacteria.Inaddition,ult

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Ariev Rifai liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->