when strict procedures were followed, including instances when he was naked or there was a lighted environment. In fact, in some instances, the materializationsprovided their own light, or picked up the luminous plaque in order that the sitters could see them. Pawlowski reported how 'the light from the plaque is so good that I could see the pores and the down on the skin of their faces and hands'.(13) One frequent visitor not only provided enough light to ensure that he could be seen, but this also illuminated the sitters and much of the séance room.The factors that seemed to diminish the quality of Kluski's mediumship did not arise through any controls imposed, but rather his health and the weather; stormsappeared to cause him considerable problems. It was also observed that when Kluski was not in good health, the phenomena diminished, e.g. the materializationsbecoming reduced in size. After a séance, he was invariably exhausted, but alsosuffered from insomnia apart from the vomiting of blood. Some of his health problems can be attributed to a serious injury sustained through participating in aduel at the age of twenty-seven. As stated, Kluski was hardly a typical medium...While some Spiritualists may be satisfied with little more than odours, touches,winds, and 'the quick shake of a tambourine', Kluski is an excellent example ofthe true nature of Spiritualism and mediumship - providing a link between the two planes of existence and effecting a meaningful discourse between them. It isthis type of physical phenomena, the type witnessed in NAS demonstrations, thatshould be the sole aspiration for all Spiritualists and Survivalists. The pointat issue is the need to pursue and attain communication, rather than peripheralphenomena that do not edify; in the case of Kluski, it became possible for the two worlds to be temporarily fused, and for visible and audible evidence to be supplied in abundance. Surely this is the actual purpose of Spiritualism?It is an absolute pleasure to read through the accounts of Kluski's mediumship;he surely represents a considerable stumbling-block for non-survivalists. I suspect that this is the reason why there has been so little discussion about him bythe materialists who prefer speculation and wild conjecture rather than unbiased study of the subject. But why should there be such animosity towards physicalphenomena, such as that found with Kluski? Simply because, 'They are both signsand symbols of a specter that haunts the strongholds of science: the specter ofthe direct power of mind and imagination to transform the real world'.(14)Bibliography.(1)Gustave Geley, Clairvoyance and Materialisation, trans. Stanley De Brath (London: Fisher Unwin, 1927), pp.201,203 (This has photographs of the moulds, the materializations of the hawk and Pithecanthropus). (2)Zofia Weaver, 'The Enigma ofFranek Kluski', Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, (58), 1992, pp.293,294. (3)Weaver, Ibid, p.295. (4)F. W. Pawlowski, 'The Mediumship of Franek Kluski of Warsaw', Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, (19) 1925, pp.501,502. (5)Sylvia Barbanell, When Your Animal Dies (London: SpiritualistPress, 1940), pp.90,91. (6)Linda Williamson, Mediums and the Afterlife (London:Robert Hale, 1992), p.55. (7)Pawlowski, Ibid, p.487. (8)Cited by Mary Rose Barrington, 'Kluski', Psi Researcher, Winter 1993, p.9. (9)Pawlowski, Ibid, p.501. (10)Pawlowski, Ibid, pp.499,500. (11)Charles Richet, Thirty Years of Psychical Research (London: Collins Sons, 1923), pp.543-545. (12)Mary Rose Barrington, 'Kluski and Geley: Further Case for the Defence', Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, (60), 1994, p.106. (13)Pawlowski, Ibid, p.486. (14)Anita Gregory, The Strange Case of Rudi Schneider (New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1985), p.425.