or ‘testimony’. The coincidence of two classes in the semantic structure of some words may be almostregular. Collectivity, for instance, may be signalled by such suffixes as
-dom, -ery-, -hood, -ship. It
must be borne in mind, however, that words with these suffixes are polysemantic and show a regular correlation of the abstract noun denoting state and a collective noun denoting a group of persons of whomthis state is characteristic, сf.
Alongside with adding some lexico-grammatical meaning to the stem, certain suffixes charge it withemotional force. They may be derogatory:
These seem to be more numerous in English than the suffixes of endearment.Emotionally coloured diminutive suffixes rendering also endearment differ from thederogatory suffixes in that they are used to name not only persons but things as well. This point may beillustrated by the suffix
(auntie, cabbie (cabman), daddy),
hanky (handkerchief),nightie (night-gown).
Other suffixes that express smallness are
The connotation (see p. 47ff) of some diminutive suffixes is not one of endearment but of some outlandish elegance and novelty, particularly in the case of the borrowed suffix
(kitchenette,launderette, lecturette, maisonette,
See examples on p. 96. 7
Derivational morphemes affixed before the stem are called prefixes. Prefixes modify the lexicalmeaning of the stem, but in so doing they seldom affect its basic lexico-grammatical component.Therefore both the simple word and its prefixed derivative mostly belong to the same part of speech. The prefix
for instance, when added to verbs, conveys the meaning ‘wrongly’, ‘badly’, ‘unfavourably’;it does not suggest any other part of speech but the verb. Compare the following oppositions:
miscalculate, inform : : misinform, lead
The above oppositions are strictly proportional semantically, i.e. the same relationship betweenelements holds throughout the series. There may be other cases where the semantic relationship isslightly different but the general lexico-grammatical meaning remains, cf.
‘foreboding’ or ‘suspicion’;
The semantic effect of a prefix may be termed adverbial because it modifies the idea suggested by thestem for manner, time, place, degree and so on. A few examples will prove the point. It has been alreadyshown that the prefix
is equivalent to the adverbs
therefore by expressingevaluation it modifies the corresponding verbs for manner.
refer to time andorder, e. g.
The last word means ‘to view a film or a play before it is submitted to the general public’. Compare also:
(about thecourse of study carried on after graduation),
The latter is so called because it came after Impressionism as a reaction against it. The prefixes
in-, a-, ab-, super-, sub-, trans-
modify the stem for place, e. g.
‘to carry away’,
Several prefixesserve to modify the meaning of the stem for degree and size. The examples are
out-, over- and under-.
has already been described (see p. 95). Compare also the modification for degree in suchverbs as
The group of negative prefixes is so numerous that some scholars even find it convenient to classify prefixes into negative and non-negative ones. The negative ones are:
de-, dis-, in-/im-/il-/ir-, поп-, ип-.
Part of this group has been also more accurately classified as prefixes giving negative, reverse or opposite meaning.
occurs in many neologisms, such as
‘removecontamination from the area or the clothes’,
etc.The general idea of negation is expressed by
it may mean ‘not’, and be simply negative or ‘thereverse of, ‘asunder’, ‘away’, ‘apart’ and then it is called reversative. Cf.
‘not to agree’
appear : : disappear
(disappear is the reverse of appear),
‘to undo theappointment and thus frustrate the expectation’,
‘eject as from the throat’,
‘throw out,evict’. /
R. Quirk rails it a pejorative prefix. (See:
Quirk R. et al.
A Grammar of Contemporary English. P. 384.)
Vesnik D. and Khidekel S.
Exercises in Modern English Word-building. M., 1964
have already been discussed, so there is no necessity to dwell upon them.
is often used inabstract verbal nouns such as
and participles or former participles like
(about an officer in the army below the rank of a commissioned