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A Unif Fem Form Comp and Incomp Fl Aug Con Var

A Unif Fem Form Comp and Incomp Fl Aug Con Var

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Computer methodsin appliedmechanics andengineering
ElSEVIER
Comput. Methods App1. Mech. Engrg. 161 (1998) 229-243
A unified finite element ormulation for compressibleandincompressible lows using augmented onservationvariables
s. Mittala, T. Tezduyarb,*
"Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, UP 208 016, IndiabDepartment of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, Anny High Performance Computing Research Center, University of Minnesota,1100 Washington Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55415, USAReceived 6 November 1997
Abstract
A unified approach to computing compressible and incompressible flows is proposed. The governing equation for pressure is selectedbased on the local Mach number. In the incompressible limit the divergence-free constraint on velocity field determines the pressure, while itis the equation of state that governs the pressure solution for the compressible flows. Stabilized finite element formulations, based on thespace-time and semi-discrete methods, with the 'augmented' conservation variables are employed. The 'augmented' conservation variablesconsist of the usual conservation variables and pressure as an additional variable. The formulation is applied to various test problemsinvolving steady and unsteady flows over a large range of Mach and Reynolds numbers. @ 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Computationalmethods o solve flow problems all mainly into two categories: a) methods or compressibleflows and (b) methods or incompressiblelows. These wo casesof methodsare quite different from eachother with respect o the choice of variables, ssues related to numerical stability and choice of solvers.Variousresearchersn the past have proposed deas for a unified approach o compressibleand incompressible lows.Turkel [1] suggested preconditioning method to accelerate he convergence o a steady state for both thecompressibleand incompressible low equations.Hauke and Hughes [2] and Hauke [3] presenteda finite element ormulation for solving the compressibleNavier-Stokes equationswith different setsof variables.They also showed hat in the context of primitive or entropy variables, he incompressibleimit is well behavedandtherefore,one formulation can be used or solving both compressible nd ncompressiblelows. Weissand Smith [4] proposeda preconditioning echnique n conjunction with a dual time-stepprocedure o computeunsteady compressibleand incompressible lows with density-based ariables.Karimian and Schneider 5] presenteda collocatedpressure-based ethod that works in both compressibleand incompressible egimes.In this article we presentan alternate,unified approach o computingcompressible nd ncompressiblelows using 'augmented' conservationvariables formulation. Compressible lows have been computed by severalresearchersn the past with the conservation ariables ormulation [6-13]. It was shown by Hauke [3], that inthe incompressibleimit, the Euler Jacobians or the formulation employing conservation ariables s not wellbehaved. n the incompressible imit, since density becomesconstant, some of the coefficients must go toinfinity to accommodate inite variations in pressure. t has also been shown by Panton [14] that in the
* Corresponding author.0045-7825/98/$19.00 @ 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.PII: SO045-7825(97)00318-6
 
230
S. Mittal, T. Tezduyar I Camput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 161 (1998) 229-243
incompressibleimit, the stateequationdegenerateso a result according o which the densityof a fluid particle is constant.This relation along with the massbalanceequation eads to the divergence-free onstraint on the velocity field that can be used to determine he pressure n incompressible lows. The formulation that wepropose n this article is basedon the philosophy hat pressure s determinedby the equationof statewhen the flow is compressible,whereas t is determinedby the divergence-free onstraintwhen the flow is incompress- ible. To this end we employ the 'augmented' conservationvariables which consist of the usual conservationvariables (density, momentaand energy) and pressureas an additional variable.We begin by reviewing the governingequations or compressible nd ncompressible luid flow in Section2.The equationsare cast in a non-dimensional orm and a parameterz, based on the local Mach number, isintroduced that governs the choice of equations for compressibleand incompressible lows locally in thecomputationaldomain. The stabilized space-time variational formulation of these equations n terms of theaugmented onservationvariables s presented n Section 3. The SUPG (streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin)stabilization technique 6,7,9,13,15,16] s employed to stabilize our computationsagainst spurious numericaloscillations. n Section4 we presentsomenumerical esults o test the performance f the proposed ormulation. We begin with the computationof the shock-reflection roblem that involves three low regionsseparated y anoblique shock and ts reflection rom a wall. The exact solution or this problem s known and s comparedwiththe computed solution. Next, supersonic low past a cylinder at Mach 2 and Re 2000 is computedwith theunified formulation and with the compressible low formulation basedon the equationof state.Finally, results are presented or unsteady low past a cylinder at Re 100. These computationsare carried out for differentsubsonicMach numbers ncluding the incompressible imit.
2. The governingequations
Let {},tC ~n'd and (0, T) be the spatial and temporaldomains, espectively,where nod s the numberof space dimensions,and et 1; denote he boundaryof ,{},t'The spatial and temporal coordinatesare denotedby x and
,
The Navier-Stokes equationsgoverning he fluid flow, in conservation orm, areiJpiJt-+V'(pu)=O on,{},tfor(O,T), (1)iJ(pu)
+ v.
(puu) + Vp - V. T =0 on ll, for (0, T) ,
(2)
at
a(pe)
at
+ V. (peu)+ V. (pu) -V. (Tu) + V. q = 0 on n, for (0, T)
(3)
Here, p, U, p, T, e, and q are he density,velocity, pressure, iscousstress ensor, otal energyper unit mass,and heat flux vector, respectively.The viscous stress ensor s define~ asT
=
,u«Vu) + (VU)T)+ }"(V. u)1 . (4)where ,u and },. are the viscosity coefficients. t is assumed hat ,u and },. are related by2},.= -3 ,u . (5)Pressures related o the other variablesvia the equationof state.For ideal gases, he equationof stateassumes the special ormp=(y-l)pi, (6)where y is the ratio of specific heats,and i is the internal energy per unit mass which is related to the totalenergy per unit mass and kinetic energy as
(7)
The heat flux vector is defined as
 
S. Mittal, T. Tezduyar I Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 161 (1998) 229-243
231
q = - KVO
(8)
where K is the heat conductivity and fJ s the temperature.he temperatures related o the internal energyby the following relation:
(J=~
(Q)
Cv
where Cv is the specific heat of the fluid at constantvolume. For an ideal gasRCv =-:y-=-T' (IV)where R is the ideal gas constant.Prandtl number (P )' assumedo be specified, elates he heat conductivity ofthe fluid to its viscosity according o the following relation:JLCp
(11)
=
p ,
r
where Cp is the specific heat of the fluid at constantpressure.For an ideal gasyRC =p
-y-l
In the limit of incompressible lows, i.e. when the Mach number approaches ero, the above-mentioned et ofequationsassume new form. It can be shown 14], that the stateequationalong with the massbalanceequation lead to the following relation:pV'u =0. (13)Using the relation, Eqs. (1), (2) and (3) can be modified for incompressible lows as
iJp
iJt-+ V. (pu) - pV' u = 0 on fl, for (0, T) ,
(14)
+
v.
(puu) - puV. u + Vp -v. T=O on [}" for (O,T),
a(pe)-ae-+
V. (peu) - peV.u + V. (pu) -pV' u -v. (Tu) + V. q
=
0 on {It for (0, T). (16)tU~
x*=L'
u* =-:::-
t* =p*=L
p~uU",'
L '(8
-
8~)Cp
U2p-p~
2 .p~U~
p*=
8* =
whereall the quantitieswith the subscript
00'
refer to the free-stream aluesof the flow variables. he
governing equations n the non-dimensional ariables hat are valid over the entire range of compressible ndincompressible lows areiJp*
at*"
+ V*. (p*u*)
-
(1 - z)p*V*. u* = 0 on [J~ for (0, T*), (19)iJ(p*u*)
+ v* . (p*u*u*) - (1 - z)p*u*V* . u* + V* p* - V* . T* = 0 on [J~ for (0, T*) ,
at
a(pu)at
In this situation, the viscous stress ensor, given by Eq. (4) can be rewritten as
T
=
jL«Vu) + (VU)T)
.
(17)
It is possible o combine he two setsof governingequations or the compressible nd ncompressiblelows and express hem in terms of non-dimensional ariables.The non-dimensional ariables hat we chooseare

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