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Computation of Flows in Supersonic Wind Tunnels

Computation of Flows in Supersonic Wind Tunnels

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Published by: osoreneg on Mar 07, 2010
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11/25/2012

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c ~
C o m p u te r m e th o d s
in a p p lie d
m e c h a n ic s a n d
e n g in e e r in g
E L S E V IE R
C o m p u t.
M e th o d s
A p p l.
M ech.
E n g rg .
1 9 1 (2 0 0 1 ) 6 1 1 -6 3 4
w w w .e ls e v ie r.c o m /io c a te /c m a
S a n ja y M itta l * , S a tis h Y a d a v
D e p a rtm e n t o f A e ro s p a c eE n g in e e rin g ,In d ia n In s titu te o f T e c h n o lo g y ,K a n p u r, U P 2 0 8 0 1 6 , In d ia
R e c e iv e d 3 J a n u a ry 2 0 0 0 ; re c e iv e d in re v is e d fo rm
13 N ovem ber 2000
A b s tra c t

R e s u lts a re p re s e n te d fo r fin ite -e le m e n t c o m p u ta tio n o f flo w s in s u p e rs o n ic w in d -tu n n e ls . It is d e m o n s tra te d th a t th e s ta b iliz e d fin ite -e le m e n t m e th o d s c a n b e u tiliz e d to d e s ig n a n d a n a ly z e s u p e rs o n ic w in d -tu n n e ls in g e n e ra la n d th e d iffu s e r s e c tio n in p a rtic u la r. T h e c o m p u ta tio n s a re c a p a b le o f s im u la tin g th e s ta rt-u p p ro b le m s a s s o c ia te dw ith

th e w in d -tu n n e ls th a t a re e q u ip p e d w ith n a rro w d iffu s e rs a n d d o n o t a llo w th e s ta rt-u p s h o c k to p a s s th ro u g h . T h e e ffe c t o f v a rio u s c o m p o n e n t g e o m e trie sis in v e s tig a te d .It is s h o w n , v ia e x a m p le s ,th a t th e m e th o d m a y b e u s e d to fin d c lo s e to o p tim a l v a lu e s o f th e g e o m e tric p a ra m e te rs o f th e s u p e rs o n ic d iffu s e r. A n o z z le b lo c k th a t is d e s ig n e d p u re ly b y th e m e th o d o f c h a ra c te ris tic s ,w ith o u t b o u n d a ry -la y e r c o rre c tio n s , fa ils to d e liv e r a u n ifo rm flo w in th e te s t-s e c tio n .In c e rta in c a s e s ,e v e n th o u g h a c e rta in s ta g n a tio n to e x it p re s s u re ra tio m a y b e a b le to s ta rt th e tu n n e l, a h ig h e r p re s s u re ra tio m a y b e d e s ira b le fo r b e tte r flo w

q u a lity . R e s u lts fo r tw o b e n c h m a r k p r o b le m s , o n e in v o lv in g flo w
in a d o u b le th ro a t
n o z z le a n d th e o th e r a M a c h 3 flo w
o v e r a c o m p re s s io n c o rn e r, h a v e a ls o b e e n p re s e n te d to e s ta b lis h c o n fid e n c e in th e c o m p u ta -
tio n s . @
2 0 0 1 E ls e v ie r S c ie n c eB .V . A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d .
K e y w o rd s : U n s te a d y flo w ; S u p e rs o n ic ;W in d -tu n n e ls ; D iffu s e rs ; S ta rt-u p p ro b le m
1 . In tro d u c tio n

T h is p a p e r d e m o n s tra te sth e c a p a b ility o f th e s ta b iliz e d fin ite -e le m e n tm e th o d s in th e d e s ig n a n d a n a ly s is o f s u p e rs o n ic w in d -tu n n e ls . A s u p e rs o n icw in d -tu n n e l c o n s is ts o f a n o z z le b lo c k , te s t-s e c tio n a n d a d iffu s e r. D e ta ils o n th e v a rio u s a s p e c tso f th e s u p e rs o n icw in d -tu n n e l a n d its c o m p o n e n ts c a n b e fo u n d in th e te x t b y A n d e rs o n [1 ,2 ]. H ig h -s p e e d in te rn a l flo w s a re c o m p le x a n d a re o fte n a s s o c ia te dw ith s h o c k -w a v e /b o u n d a ry - l a y e r i n t e r a c t i o n s . I n t e r n a l f l o w s h a v e b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d b y s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r si n t h e p a s t . A r e v i e w o f t h e d a ta -b a s e a v a ila b le fo r s h o c k -w a v e /b o u n d a ry -la y e rin te ra c tio n s in s u p e rs o n ic in le ts h a s b e e n p re s e n te d b y H a m e d a n d S h a n g [3 ]. P o ls k y a n d C a m b ie r [4 ] s tu d ie d th e tra n s ie n t flo w

th ro u g h a s h o c k tu n n e l u s in g E u le r e q u a tio n s . C h e n a n d C h a k ra v a rth y [5 ] u s e d th e R e y n o ld s -a v e ra g e dN a v ie r-S to k e s e q u a tio n s to s tu d y s e p a ra te d flo w th ro u g h c o n v e rg in g -d iv e rg in g n o z z le s a n d A rg ro w

a n d E m a n u e l [6 ] in v e s tig a te d th e tra n -
s o n ic flo w
fie ld in a tw o - d im e n s io n a l m in im u m

le n g th n o z z le . C a u s o n e t a t. [7 ] h a v e a p p lie d th e ir h ig h re s o lu tio n s h o c k -c a p tu rin g m e th o d s , u s in g E u le r e q u a tio n s , to s tu d y s u rg e in a irc ra ft e n g in e in ta k e s . R e d d y a n d W e ir [8 ] h a v e s im u la te d th r e e - d im e n s io n a lflo w in a M a c h= 5 in le t a n d c o m p a r e d it w ith e x p e r im e n ta l re s u lts . S o m e o f th e s tu d ie s h a v e a ls o in c o rp o ra te d th e e ffe c to f b le e d a n d b y p a s s s y s te m sin s u p e rs o n icin le t f l o w s [ 9 , 1 0 ] . W o r k h a s a l s o b e e n d o n e b y s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r so n a i r i n t a k e s f o r s c r a m j e t a p p l i c a t i o n s u s i n g , b o th , E u le r [1 1 ] a n d N a v ie r-S to k e s e q u a tio n s [1 2 -1 4 ]. It a p p e a rs th a t th e re h a v e b e e n a n u m b e r o f s u c - c e s s fu l s tu d ie s w ith th e E u le r e q u a tio n s , h o w e v e r, th e re h a v e b e e n re la tiv e ly fe w e r e ffo rts to a d d re s s th e c o m p le x d e ta ils o f th e s h o c k -w a v e /b o u n d a ry -la y e rin te ra c tio n s in in te rn a l flo w s .

.C o rre s p o n d in g
a u th o r.
T e l.:
+ 5 1 2 -5 9 7 -2 5 3 ,
+ 5 1 2 -5 9 7 -6 2 6 ;
fa x :
+ 5 1 2 -5 9 0 -2 6 0 .
E -m a il
a d d re s s : s rn itta l@ iitk .a c .in
(S . M ittal).
0 0 4 5 -7 8 2 5 /0 1 /$
-s e e fro n t
m a tte r
@
2 0 0 1 E ls e v ie r
S c ie n c e B .V .
A ll
rig h ts
re s e rv e d .
P IT : S O O 4 5 -7 R 2 5 (O l
)O O l()~ -X
6 1 2
S . M itta l,
S . Y a d a v I C o mp u t. M e th o d s A p p l. M e c h . E n g rg . 1 9 1 (2 0 0 1 ) 6 1 1 -6 3 4
T h e g o v e rn in g e q u a tio n s fo r
th e flo w
a re th e c o m p re s s ib le N a v ie r-S to k e s e q u a tio n s in
th e c o n s e r-
v a tio n
la w
fo rm . T h e y a re s o lv e d u s in g a s ta b iliz e d fin ite -e le m e n t fo rm u la tio n

b a s e d o n c o n s e rv a tio n v a ria b le s . T h e s tre a m lin e -u p w in d /P e tro v -G a le rk in (S U P G ) s ta b iliz a tio n te c h n iq u e is e m p lo y e d to s ta b i- liz e th e c o m p u ta tio n s a g a in s t s p u rio u s n u m e ric a l o s c illa tio n s d u e to a d v e c tio n -d o m in a te d flo w s [1 5 -1 9 ]. A

s h o c k -c a p tu rin g te rm
is a d d e d to
th e fo rm u la tio n
t o
p ro v id e
s ta b ility
t o
th e c o m p u ta tio n s in

th e p re s e n c e o f d is c o n tin u itie s a n d la rg e g ra d ie n ts in th e flo w . S o m e o f th e c o m p u ta tio n s re p o rte d in th is p a p e r a re c a rrie d o u t u s in g th e e n h a n c e d -d is c re tiz a tio n in te rfa c e -c a p tu rin g te c h n iq u e (E D IC T )

th a t w a s
in tro d u c e d b y T e z d u y a r e t a l. [2 0 ,2 1 ] fo r s im u la tio n o f u n s te a d y flo w
p ro b le m s w ith
in te rfa c e s s u c h a s
tw o -flu id
a n d fre e -s u rfa c e flo w s . L a te r M itta l
e t a l. [2 2 ] d e m o n s tra te d , th ro u g h
c e rta in e x a m p le s , th e
a p p lic a tio n
o f E D IC T
t o
u n s te a d y c o m p re s s ib le flo w
p r o b le m s . T h is
te c h n iq u e is u s e fu l in
a c c u ra te
c o m p u ta tio n o f u n s te a d y flo w s th a t in v o lv e s h o c k -w a v e /b o u n d a ry -la y e rin te ra c tio n s . A

b a s e m e s h c a lle d th e L e v e /-O m e s h is u tiliz e d to in itia te th e c o m p u ta tio n s . A n e rro r in d ic a to r, p ro p o s e d b y L o h n e r [2 3 ], is e m p lo y e d to

id e n tify
th e re g io n s in

th e c o m p u ta tio n a l d o m a in th a t n e e d e n h a n c e d d is c re tiz a tio n fo r in c re a s e d a c c u ra c y . T h e e le m e n ts th a t a re c h o s e n fo r e n h a n c e d d is c re tiz a tio n a re e ith e r s u b d iv id e d in to fo u r o r 1 6 e le m e n ts .T h e re s u ltin g fin ite -e le m e n t m e s h is re fe rre d to a s e ith e r a L e v e /-l m e s h o r a L e v e /-2 m e s h . U s u a lly , th e re g io n s o f e le m e n t re fin e m e n t a re th e o n e s th a t a re a s s o c ia te d w ith la rg e g ra d ie n ts o f th e flo w v a ria b le s . T h e fin ite -e le m e n t fu n c tio n s c o rre s p o n d in g to e n h a n c e d d is c re tiz a tio n a re d e s ig n e d to h a v e tw o c o m p o n e n ts , w ith

e a c h c o m p o n e n t c o m in g fro m
a d iffe re n t le v e l o f m e s h re fin e m e n t o v e r th e
s a m e c o m p u ta tio n a l d o m a in .
T h e a p p lic a tio n
o f th e b a s e fin ite -e le m e n t fo rm u la tio n
t o
v a rio u s flo w
p r o b le m s in v o lv in g
e x te rn a l
flo w
p a s t c y lin d e rs a n d a irfo ils in v a rio u s s p e e d re g im e s h a s b e e n re p o rte d in e a rlie r p a p e rs [1 8 ,1 9 ]. In
th is p a p e r th e m e th o d is a p p lie d to
th e c o m p u ta tio n
o f flo w s in

s u p e rs o n ic w in d -tu n n e ls . O n e o f th e in te re s tin g c o m p o n e n ts in th e w in d -tu n n e l is th e d iffu s e r s e c tio n th a t is lo c a te d ju s t d o w n s tre a m o f th e te s t-s e c tio n . It is re s p o n s ib le fo r s lo w in g th e flo w

a n d re c o v e ry o f s ta tic p re s s u re v ia a tra in
o f o b liq u e
s h o c k s a n d v is c o u s a c tio n . T h e flo w
in

th e d iffu s e r is e x tre m e ly c o m p le x a n d in v o lv e s s h o c k -w a v e / b o u n d a ry -la y e r in te ra c tio n s . B e fo re th e m e th o d is a p p lie d to th e c o m p u ta tio n o f flo w s in w in d -tu n n e ls it is v a lid a te d v ia a c o u p le o f b e n c h m a r k p r o b le m s . T h e fir s t o n e is th e M a c h 3 flo w p a s t a 1 0 \u00b0 c o m p r e s s io n c o rn e r. T h is p ro b le m

in v o lv e s s u p e r s o n ic flo w

p a s t a fla t p la te fo llo w e d b y a c o m p re s s io n c o rn e r th a t re s u lts in a n in te re s tin g s h o c k -w a v e /b o u n d a ry -la y e rin te ra c tio n . T h e re s u lts c o m p a re q u ite w e ll w ith th o s e re p o rte d b y S h a k ib [2 4 ], C a rte r [2 5 ] a n d H u n g a n d M a c C o rm a c k [2 6 ]. T h e s e c o n d b e n c h m a rk p ro b le m is th e flo w in a d o u b le th ro a t n o z z le . R e s .u ltsfo r th is p ro b le m h a v e b e e n c o m p u te d b y o th e r re s e a rc h e rsa n d re p o rte d in a G A M M

w o rk s h o p [2 7 ]. T h e re s u lts w ith th e p re s e n t fo rm u la tio n

a r e in e x c e lle n t c o m p a r is o n w ith th o s e re p o rte d b y o th e rs . T h e p h e n o m e n o n o f u n s ta rtin g o f th e tu n n e l d u e to in s u ffic ie n t a re a o f th e d iffu s e r th ro a t to

a llo w
th e s ta rt-u p s h o c k to
p a s s th ro u g h

h a s b e e n s im u la te d . T h e e ffe c t o f v a rio u s p a ra m e te rs o f th e tu n n e l in c lu d in g th e s ta g n a tio n to e x it p re s s u re ra tio h a v e b e e n s tu d ie d . N o z z le b lo c k s d e s ig n e d w ith

a n d w ith o u t b o u n d a ry -la y e r c o rre c tio n s h a v e b e e n u s e d to s tu d y th e tu n n e l p e rfo rm a n c e .
A
u s e fu l to o l h a s b e e n d e v e lo p e d th a t m a y b e u tiliz e d fo r th e d e s ig n o f d iffu s e r s e c tio n s o f w in d -tu n n e ls
o r a irc ra ft e n g in e in ta k e s .
T h e e q u a tio n s y s te m s re s u ltin g fro m
th e fin ite -e le m e n t d is c re tiz a tio n o f th e flo w

p ro b le m s a re s o lv e d ite ra tiv e ly u s in g a m a trix -fre e te c h n iq u e to re d u c e th e m e m o ry re q u ire m e n ts . T h is v e c to r-b a s e d te c h n iq u e [2 8 ] e lim in a te s th e n e e d to c o m p u te o r s to re a n y c o e ffic ie n t m a tric e s in c lu d in g th o s e a t th e e le m e n t le v e l. T h e m e th o d h a s b e e n im p le m e n te d o n a s h a re d -m e m o ry p a ra lle l m u lti-p ro c e s s o r c o m p u te r fro m

S G I.
In S e c tio n 2 th e g o v e rn in g e q u a tio n s fo r c o m p re s s ib le flu id flo w
a re re v ie w e d . T h e s ta b iliz e d fo rm u la -
tio n s a lo n g w ith
th e d e s c rip tio n fo r e n h a n c e d d is c re tiz a tio n a re d e s c rib e d in S e c tio n 3 . R e s u lts a n d d is -
c u s s io n c o n s titu te S e c tio n 4 a n d a fe w c o n c lu d in g re m a rk s a re m a d e in S e c tio n 5 .
2 . T h e g o v e rn in g e q u a tio n s
Let D c
~ n s da n d ( O , T ) b e t h e s p a t i a l a n d t e m p o r a l d o m a i n s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h e r e n s d i s t h e n u m b e r o f
s p a c e d im e n s io n s , a n d le t r
d e n o te th e b o u n d a ry o f D . T h e s p a tia l a n d te m p o ra l c o o rd in a te s a re d e n o te d
b y x a n d t. T h e N a v ie r-S to k e s e q u a tio n s g o v e rn in g th e flu id flo w , in c o n s e rv a tio n fo rm , a re
S . M itta l,
S . Y a d a v I C o m p u t. M e th o d s A p p l. M e c h . E n g rg . 1 9 1 (2 0 0 1 ) 6 1 1 -6 3 4
6 1 3
(1 )
(2 )
(3 )
w h e rep , D , p , T , e a n d q a re th e d e n s ity , v e lo c ity ,
p re s s u re , v is c o u s s tre s s te n s o r, th e to ta l
e n e rg y p e r u n it
m a s s a n d th e h e a t flu x v e c to r, re s p e c tiv e ly .T h e v is c o u s s tre s s te n s o r is d e fin e d a s
(4 )
w h e re J 1a n d ), a re th e v is c o s ity c o e ffic ie n ts .It is a s s u m e d th a t J 1a n d ), a re re la te d b y
2
;.= -jJ l.
(5 )
P re s s u re is re la te d to th e o th e r v a ria b le s v ia th e e q u a tio n o f s ta te . F o r id e a l g a s e s ,th e e q u a tio n o f s ta te
a s s u m e sth e s p e c ia lfo rm
p = (y - l)p i,
(6 )
w h e re y is th e ra tio o f s p e c ific h e a ts a n d i is th e in te rn a l e n e rg y p e r u n it m a s s th a t is re la te d to th ~ to ta l
e n e r g y p e r u n it m a s s a n d v e lo c ity a s
(7 )
T h e h e a t flu x v e c to r is d e fin e d a s
q= -K '\l(},
(8 )
w h e re K is th e h e a t c o n d u c tiv ity a n d () is th e te m p e ra tu re . T h e te m p e ra tu re is re la te d to th e in te rn a l e n e rg y
b y th e fo llo w in g r e la tio n :
R=v -I"
(Q )
':- - - i
-
R "
\J I
w h e re R is th e id e a l g a s c o n s ta n t. P ra n d tl n u m b e r (P r), a s s u m e dto b e s p e c ifie d ,re la te s th e h e a t c o n d u c tiv ity
to th e flu id v is c o s ity a c c o rd in g to th e fo llo w in g re la tio n :
~ -
y R ,u
(1 /\\
"'-(y -l)P r"
T h e c o m p re s s ib le N a v ie r-S to k e s e q u a tio n s (1 }-(3 ) c a n b e w ritte n in th e c o n s e rv a tio n v a ria b le s
a u
o f;
a E ;
+ & ;
= 0
o n .Q
fo r (0 , T ),
o t
o x ;
w h e re U= (p ,p u \,p u z ,p e ) is th e v e c to r o f c o n s e rv a tio n v a ria b le s a n d F i a n d E i a re , re s p e c tiv e ly ,th e E u le r
a n d v is c o u s flu x v e c to rs d e fin e d a s
U iP
U iP U I +
fJ ilP
U iP U 2 +
fJ i2 P
U i(p e + p )
F i=

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