Transportation InfrastructureEnergy Infrastructure
Administrative lawBankruptcy lawEnergy lawInsurance lawInternational lawThe natural resource of windpowers these 5MW wind turbineson this wind farm 28 km off thecoast of Belgium.
.4.5 "De-growth"5 Sustainable development in economics6 See also6.1 Organizations and research7 References8 Further reading9 External links
Scope and definitions
The concept has included notions of weak sustainability, strongsustainability and deep ecology. Sustainable development does notfocus solely on environmental issues.In 1987, the United Nations released the Brundtland Report, whichdefines sustainable development as 'development which meets theneeds of the present without compromising the ability of futuregenerations to meet their own needs.'
The United Nations 2005 World Summit Outcome Document refersto the "interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars" of sustainable development as economic development, socialdevelopment, and environmental protection.
Indigenous peoples have argued, through various internationalforums such as the United Nations Permanent Forum on IndigenousIssues and the Convention on Biological Diversity, that there are
pillars of sustainable development, the fourth being cultural.
The Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity
(UNESCO, 2001)further elaborates the concept by stating that "...cultural diversity isas necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature”; itbecomes “one of the roots of development understood not simply interms of economic growth, but also as a means to achieve a moresatisfactory intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual existence". In this vision, cultural diversity is thefourth policy area of sustainable development.Economic Sustainability: Agenda 21 clearly identified information, integration, and participation as keybuilding blocks to help countries achieve development that recognises these interdependent pillars. Itemphasises that in sustainable development everyone is a user and provider of information. It stressesthe need to change from old sector-centred ways of doing business to new approaches that involvecross-sectoral co-ordination and the integration of environmental and social concerns into alldevelopment processes. Furthermore, Agenda 21 emphasises that broad public participation in decisionmaking is a fundamental prerequisite for achieving sustainable development.
According to Hasna Vancock, sustainability is a process which tells of a development of all aspects of human life affecting sustenance. It means resolving the conflict between the various competing goals,and involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equity