Nickname for the 1950s, when economic prosperity caused U.S. population to swell from 150 million to180 million.
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, accused the royal governor of failing to provide poorer farmers protection from raiding tribes. In response, Bacon led 300 settlers in a war against local NativeAmericans, and then burned and looted Jamestown. The rebellion highlighted the increasing rift betweenrich and poor in the Chesapeake region.
Bank of the United States
Chartered in 1791, the bank was a controversial part of Alexander Hamilton’s Federalist economic program.
Andrew Jackson’s 1832 veto of the proposed charter renewal for the Second Bank of the United States.The veto marked the beginning of Jackson’s five-year battle against the national bank.
Battle of Antietam
Fought in Maryland on September 17, 1863. Considered the single bloodiest day of the Civil War,casualties totalled more than 8,000 dead and 18,000 wounded. Although Union forces failed to defeatLee and the Confederates, they did halt the Confederate advance through Northern soil.
Battle of Britain
Conducted during the summer and fall of 1940. In preparation for an amphibious assault, Germanslauched airstrikes on London. Hitler hoped the continuous bombing would destroy British industry andsap morale, but the British successfully avoided a German invasion.
Battle of the Bulge
The final German offensive in Western Europe, lasting from December 16, 1944, to January 16, 1945.Hitler amassed his last reserves against Allied troops in France. Germany made a substantial dent in theAllied front line, but the Allies recovered and repelled the Germans, clearing the way for a march towardBerlin.
Battle of Gettysburg
The largest battle of the Civil War. Widely considered to be the war’s turning point, the battle markedthe Union’s first major victory in the East. The three-day campaign, from July 1 to 4, 1863, resulted inan unprecedented 51,000 total casualties.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Led by future president William Henry Harrison, U.S. forces defeated Shawnee forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. The U.S. victory lessened the Native American threat in Ohio and Indiana.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
A failed attempt by U.S.-backed Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro’s communistgovernment in April 1961.
Nonconformist writers such as Allan Ginsberg, the author of
(1956), and Jack Kerouac, who penned
On the Road
(1957). The Beats rejected uniform middle-class culture and sought to overturn thesexual and social conservatism of the period.
In June 1948, the Soviets attempted to cut off Western access to Berlin by blockading all road and railroutes to the city. In response, the U.S. airlifted supplies to the city, a campaign known as “OperationVittles.” The blockade lasted until May 1949.
Constructed by the USSR and completed in August 1961 to prevent East Berliners from fleeing to WestBerlin. The wall cemented the political split of Berlin between the communist and authoritian East andthe capitalist and democratic West. The Berlin wall was torn down on November 9, 1989, setting thestage for the reunification of Germany and signifying the end of the Cold War.
Big stick diplomacy