Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is adisease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. Theresulting ischemia or oxygen shortage causes damage and potential death of hearttissue. It is a medical emergency, and the leading cause of death for both men andwomen all over the world.
Important risk factors are a previous history of vascular disease such as atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and/or angina, a previous heartattack or stroke, any previous episodes of abnormal heart rhythms or syncope, older age—especially men over 40 and women over 50, smoking, excessive alcoholconsumption, the abuse of certain illicit drugs, high triglyceride levels, high LDL ("Low-density lipoprotein") and low HDL ("High density lipoprotein"), diabetes, high bloodpressure, obesity, and chronically high levels of stress in certain persons.Heart diseases constitute the second most common cause of death. Coronaryheart disease death rates have shown consistent declines over the past 15 years, withmen having almost twice the death rates of women. The difference in rates hasremained constant over the years. In 2008, the age-standardized death rate for menwas 105 per 100 000 resident population, compared with 56 for women. The incidenceof acute myocardial infarction events among adults has generally decreased since1990. The incidence rate for men is about twice that for women; in 2007, the age-standardized incidence rate for men was 179 per 100 000 resident population,compared with 79 for women.
Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States.Approximately 1.3 million cases of nonfatal MI are reported each year, for an annual incidencerate of approximately 600 cases per 100,000 people. The proportion of patients diagnosed withNSTEMI compared with STEMI has progressively increased. MI continues to be a significantproblem in industrialized countries and is becoming an increasingly significant problem indeveloping countries.
This is a case of patient FT, 89 years old, male, Roman Catholic, from Talakag,Bukidnon; admitted at MRH on Feb. 3, 2010 with chief complaints of facial asymmetryassociated with slurring of speech and chest pain. His previous diagnosis from last