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Lecture Notes On

Lecture Notes On

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Published by: ananth k r on Mar 08, 2010
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10/23/2013

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1
LECTURE NOTESON
APPLIED THERMODYNAMICSBYDr. T.R.Seethram
(Mech.Engg. Department, PESIT, Bangalore)
 
2
CHAPTER 3GAS POWER CYCLES
3.1. Introduction:-
Two important applications of thermodynamics are power generationand refrigeration. Both are usually accomplished by systems that operate onthermodynamic cycles. Hence thermodynamic cycles are usually divided into two generalcategories, viz., “
power cycles
” and “
refrigeration cycles
”. Power or refrigerationcycles are further classified as “
gas cycles
” and “
vapour cycles
”. In the case of gascycles, the working substance will be in gaseous phase throughout the cycle, where as invapour cycles, the working substance will be in liquid phase in one part of the cyclicprocess and will be in vapour phase in some other part of the cycle.Thermodynamic cycles are also classified as “
closed cycles
” and
open cycles
”. In closed cycles, the working fluid is returned to its original state at theend of each cycle of operation and is recirculated. In an open cycle, the workingsubstance is renewed at the end of each cycle instead of being re-circulated. Inautomobile engines, the combustion gases are exhausted and replaced by fresh air-fuelmixture at the end of each cycle. Though the engine operates in a mechanical cycle, theworking substance does not go through a complete thermodynamic cycle.
3.2. Basic Considerations in the Analysis of Power Cycles:-
The cycles encountered inactual devices are difficult to analyse because of the presence of friction, and the absenceof sufficient time for establishment of equilibrium conditions during the cycle. In order tomake an analytical study of a cycle feasible, we have to make some idealizations byneglecting internal irreversibilities and complexities. Such cycles resemble the actualcycles closely but are made up totally of internal reversible processes. These cycles arecalled ideal cycles.
3.3. Carnot Power Cycle:-
The T-s and p-v diagrams for a Carnot power cycle areshown in Fig.3.1. The cycle consists of two reversible adiabatic and two reversibleisothermal processes, The working of the cycle is as follows:Process 1-2:Reversible isothermal heating of the working substance from state1to state 2.Process 2-3 :- Isentropic expansion of the working substance from state 2 to state 3.During this process work is done by the working substance on the surroundings.Process 3-4:- Reversible isothermal cooling of the working substance from state 3 to state4.Process 4-1:- Isentropic compression of the working substance so that it comes back to itsinitial state. During this process work is done on the working substance by thesurroundings.
 
3
 Expression for Thermal Efficiency of the Cycle
 
Net work output from the cycle = W
n
=
dW .
1-2-3-4-12 3 4 1
By first law for a cyclic process we have
dW =
dQ =
dQ +
dQ +
dQ +
dQ
1-2-3-4-1 1-2-3-4-1 1 2 3 42 4
Or W
n
=
TdS + 0 +
TdS + 0 = T
h
[S
2
– S
1
] + T
c
[S
4
– S
3
]
1
 
3
Since S
4
= S
1
and S
3
= S
2,
we have
W
n
= (S
2
– S
1
)[T
h
– T
c
] ………………………(3.1)
Assuming that the working substance behaves as a perfect gas and since process 1 – 2 isisothermal we haveS
2
– S
1
= m R ln(p
1
/ p
2
).Substituting this expression in Eq. (3.1) we have
W
n
= m R ln(p
1
/ p
2
) [T
h
– T
c
] ……………….(3.2)sT2314vp
 
3214Fig. 3.1: T-s and p-v diagrams for a Carnot power cycleT
h
T
c

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