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Cold Weather Foundation Construction for Sakhalin II

Cold Weather Foundation Construction for Sakhalin II

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Concrete international / july 2009
Concrete international / july 2009

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10/13/2012

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Cncinninl
 
/
july 2009
 51
By KeisuKe MatsuKawa, taKashi Matsuno, satoru yoshiMoto, Masatoshi Kagaya, and taKashi ueno
Cl WFninCnscin fSlin II
ovcm m  c c    
S
akhalin Island, located on the east coast of Russia andnorth of Japan (Fig. 1), has rich reserves of oil andgas. Recently, several large-scale projects related tooffshore oil and gas exploration have been started.Sakhalin II, one of the largest and most complete of theseprojects, was constructed by Sakhalin Energy InvestmentCompany, a consortium comprising Royal Dutch Shell,Mitsui & Company, Mitsubishi Company, and Gazprom. Thecompany commenced commercial production and exportof liquefied natural gas (LNG) in March 2009.
LNG pLaNt
The LNG will be processed at a plant located atPrigorodnoye in the Korsakov district on the southernmostpart of the island. The major facilities at the plant include:
 Two LNG production lines with a total productioncapacity of 4.4 million tonnes (4.8 million tons) per year;
 Two 100,000 m
3
(131,000 yd
3
 ) LNG tanks;
 Two 100,000 kL (630,000 barrel) crude oil tanks; and
 An LNG jetty consisting of an 810 m (2660 ft) long steelbridge and 25 concrete drilled piers.The entire LNG plant construction project was executedon an engineer/procure/construct, turnkey basis by CTSD,a joint venture company of the Japanese engineering firmsChiyoda Corporation and Toyo Engineering Corporationstarted in 2003. The total volume of concrete used forLNG plant and oil export terminal construction was145,000 m
3
(190,000 yd
3
 ).During February, the coldest month of the year, thedaily mean temperature at the construction site is
Fig. 1: Loction of th Skhlin II liqufid nturl gs (LNG) plnt
 
52 
 july 2009
/
 
Cncinninl
 
−11.4 °C (11.5 °F), the mean dailyminimum temperature is −17.6 °C(0.3 °F), and the design minimumtemperature for a 10-year return
TabLe 1:
S
pecification
 
requirementS
 
 and
 
phySical
 
propertieS
 
for
 
blended
 
cement 
 
uSed
 
on
 
the
 
project 
eN 197-1,
1
CeM III/brquirmntTst rsult
sc, %66 8068d, k/m
3
(b/f
3
 )2990 (187)B f, cm
2
/4060s m, mi 
60170F285Cmpv, MP (p)2-
10 ( 
1450)10.6 (1540)7-31.5 (4570)28-42.5  62.5(6160  9060)52.5 (7610)
TabLe 2:
p
ropertieS
 
 and
 
mixture
 
proportionS
 
for
 
Structural
 
concreteS
LNG plnt structurMrin structur
rcmcB35B40dqmdcmpv, MP (p)35 (5080)40 (5800)t cmpv, MP (p)44.9 (6510)51.4 (7450)Fz-c c
3
F200F300Mxmm zf , mm (.)20 (0.79)20 (0.79)smp, mm (.) 100 ± 25 (4 ± 1)180 ± 25 (7 ± 1)
/
cm
0.380.375ac, % 5 ± 25 ± 2MxppCm, k/m
3
(b/
3
 )447 (753)440 (742)w, k/m
3
(b/
3
 )170 (287)165 (278)F , k/m
3
 (b/
3
 )800 (1348)829 (1397)C ,k/m
3
(b/
3
 )995 (1677)969 (1633)hrwra, l/m
3
(z/
3
 )1.9 (49)1.54 (40)ae , l/m
3
 (z/
3
 )0.004 (0.10)0.01 (0.26)t, k/m
3
(b/
3
 )2412 (4065)2403 (4050)
period is −32.0 °C (−25.6 °F). Coldweather concreting was thereforeused for a large part of the project.An additional technical challengewas that the concrete contained ablended cement with a high slagcement content specified principallyfor enhanced durability.
CemeNt
A CEM III/B cement per EN 197-1,
1
 which is required to contain 66 to80% slag cement, was specified forthe project. The actual slag cementcontent was about 68%. This level ofslag content is higher than in Japanwhere the level is typically around40 to 50%. The cement is specifiedby the owner worldwide, regardlessof the project location, and ischaracterized by enhanced durabilityand low heat of hydration. Thecement used on the project was madein Japan, and its physical propertiesare shown in Table 1.Using a method similar to ASTMC1202 to evaluate resistance tochloride ion penetration, the cementmanufacturer compared concretemixtures made using the blendedcement and a reference portlandcement. Each mixture had a water-cementitious material ratio ( 
w
/
cm
 ) of0.4 and was tested at 91 days. Themixture made with the blendedcement had a diffusion coefficient of0.27 × 10
–12
m
2
/s (2.9 × 10
–12
ft
2
/s), whilethe mixture made with the referencecement had a diffusion coefficientnearly 10 times larger at 2.1 × 10
–12
m
2
/s(22.6 × 10
–12
ft
2
/s).As there was concern about slowhydration rate of the blendedcement in cold weather, the strengthdevelopment of concrete cured at5 °C (41 °F) was studied prior to thestart of the project. This studyshowed that hydration was notsignificantly delayed compared toportland cement concrete, mainlydue to the relatively high reactivityof the slag cement ground in Japan.
mIxture proportIoNS
The mixture proportions forconcrete used in the LNG plantstructure and the marine structuresare shown in Table 2. The Russian
 
Cncinninl
 
/
july 2009
 53
code bases concrete compressivestrength on tests of 150 mm (6 in.)cube specimens. The target com-pressive strength considering anallowance for variation at the batchplant in accordance with the Russiancode, however, is about 12.8% higherthan the design strength. The mixtureshad high cementitious materialcontents of at least 440 kg/m
3
 (742 lb/yd
3
 ) and a
w
/
cm
around 0.38.Because of the high fine powdercontent and low
w
/
cm
, autogenousshrinkage was also a concern. Toavoid cracking, moist curing bycovering with polyethylene sheet wasspecified until the concrete reached70% of the design strength.
ruSSIaN CodeS
The LNG plant owner usuallyrequires design of their facilities tocomply with international codes(either American or European), butthe engineering work for this projectalso had to be consistent with Russiancodes, such as the ConstructionCodes and Regulations (StroitelnyeNormy i Pravila [SNIP])
2
design codeand the State Standard (GosudarstveniiStandart [GOST]) material and testingstandards. Therefore, concretestructural design initially performedby Japanese engineering firms inaccordance with international codeshad to be reviewed by a Russian designinstitute to obtain its endorsement ofdesign consistency with the Russiancodes. Similarly, for concrete materialtesting, the most stringent requirementamong international codes andRussian codes had to be satisfied.For example, the mixtures had tomeet a test for resistance to cyclicfreezing and thawing specified by theRussian code—one of the moststringent in the world.
FreezING-aNd-thaWING teSt
The Russian cyclic freezing-and-thawing resistance test is describedin the GOST 10060 series
3
and appliesto both concrete and aggregate.Three similar test methods arespecified. According to Method One,also known as the Basic Methodspecified in GOST 10060.1,
4
a 150 mm(6 in.) cube specimen is soaked inwater and exposed to a cycle offreezing in air at −18 °C (0 °F) andthawing in water at 18 °C (64 °F) for aspecified number of cycles. This issimilar to ASTM C666 procedure A.Compressive strength is then measured.The mixture is acceptable if the
FllowshipsScholrships
&
 avill
 aCI Foundtion Fllowships
g     cc  b pp f  aCi F  fp. Fp cpcv  c p v  $7000  $10,000,   v/xp f pcp   aCi cv, mf   m,   pp f  mm p.
 aCI Foundtion Scholrships
g   cc  b  pp f cp , v  $3000 c.ob  ppc fm  qm :
www.scholrships.concrt.org 
t b c,  m  c   u.s.  C   cmp ppc  q cm  aCi b F, ocb 30, 2009.

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