from each of the five mixtures. Forthe indoor-static tests, two slabsfrom each of Mixtures T38-R06,T32-NR, and T32-R04 were cast. Atotal of 26 slabs were tested.
Coarse aggregates were typically ablend of 20 and 10 mm (3/4 and3/8 in.) crushed limestone obtainedfrom quarries around Riyadh. Thefine aggregates were a blend ofnatural silica sand and manufacturedsand obtained from crushed lime-stone with the blend ratio selectedby the RMC plant to meet thegradation limits of ASTM C33 for fineaggregate. The specific gravity andabsorption values were, respectively,2.62 and 1.2% for the coarse aggregateand 2.61 and 1.5% for the fine aggregate.A local company manufactured thecement, which conformed to ASTMC150, Type I. No other cementitiousmaterials were used. The WRRadmixture conformed to ASTM C494,Type D requirements.
CASting And tEStingProCEdurES
The basic concrete mixture usedin the study was typical of thestructural-grade concrete used inRiyadh, with a cement content of350 kg/m
) and specified28-day cube strength of 35 MPa(5000 psi). For all five mixtures, initialslump measured at the RMC plantwas maintained within the range of160 to 180 mm (6-1/4 to 7 in.) byadjusting the water content. Thecorresponding water-cement ratio(
) was 0.47 to 0.54 for all mixturesexcept T32-NR, which had a
of0.65. The slump was kept constant toreplicate actual RMC industrypractice in Riyadh. The specifiedconcrete temperatures of 25, 32, and38 °C (77, 90, and 100 °F) wereobtained at the RMC plant by adjustingthe temperature of the mixing water.The mixture proportions for the 20and 10 mm (3/4 and 3/8 in.) crushedlimestone, crushed sand, and silicasand were 630, 420, 390, and390 kg/m
(1062, 708, 657, and657 lb/yd
), respectively.Casting was done at middayduring August to represent extremeweather conditions. The casting wascarried out on separate days for eachmixture and appropriate measureswere taken at the plant to achieveroughly the specified concretetemperature and slump. Concretequantity was kept constant for eachmixture. The trip to deliver theconcrete to the concrete laboratoryat King Saud University took 75 to85 minutes. Upon arrival at the lab,the concrete in the drum of the truckwas agitated at high speed forapproximately 2 minutes.For all mixtures, measurementstaken during the time of castingindicated outdoor temperatureranged from 38 to 42 °C (100 to108 °F), relative humidity (RH)ranged from 9 to 14%, and themaximum wind speed, taken about500 mm (20 in.) above the surface,ranged from 9 to 16 km/h (5.6 to9.9 mph). For the laboratoryconditions (both exposures), thetemperature was 28 ± 1 °C (82.4 ±1.8 °F) and RH was 16 ± 2%. For thefan-exposure condition, the windspeed was 14 ± 2 km/h (8.7 ± 1.2 mph).Steel forms were used for theslabs. Reinforcing bars were placedin the forms and supported onmortar spacers to keep the bars atmiddepth of the slab. Outdoor formsand reinforcing bars were mistedwith water to cool them beforeplacing the concrete. Concretewas placed in the forms in onelayer, consolidated by rodding,and finished by screeding in onedirection using a wooden straightedge.For each mixture, the following testswere performed on the fresh concrete:
Concrete temperature test accordingto ASTM C1064;
Slump test according to ASTMC143; and
Setting time according toASTM C403.
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