Combination approaches for senior high school in Indonesia 3
Independent construction stage
, after the students specify their topic, they canstart to write with following this process of writing : ‘preparation throughdrafting, conferencing, editing, and evaluating’ then come to ‘the creativemanipulation of the genre’ ( Callaghan,et al, 1993, cited in Iswari, 2005 : 38)
What is process-writing approach?
The cognitivism had received much attention on 1970’s that influence to thelanguage learning, including ESL/EFL classroom (Nunan, 2003 : 91). ‘Critical thinkingand problem solving’ capabilities are the essence of cognitivism (Nunan, 2003 : 91).Thus, make process writing approach became popular. In this process writing, teacher and students concerned to the process of the writing itself. The supporters of this theoryargued that it is better if we look at the chance opened for students to express their ownarguments and to be more concerned with the content and the message of their writing(Nunan, 2003 : 91). Teacher gives freedom to their students to write down what is intheir mind and see it more as a process than a product. The process writing is the resultof CLT, which stressed on learner-centered instruction, students-student negotiation,and strategies-based instruction, lays the exploration of students creativity and criticalthinking as its core (Brown, 2001: 340).
Process-approach writing stages
These are the sequences of activities that students follow in the process writingapproach (Nunan, 2003 : 97-98) :