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Appropriate Approaches for Senior High School in Indonesia

Appropriate Approaches for Senior High School in Indonesia

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11/15/2012

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Combination approaches for senior high school in Indonesia 1
Appropriate approaches for Senior High School in Indonesia
Writing can be considered as the hardest part of all language skill that should bemastered by the EFL/ESL students. It caused by two simple reasons that can representall obstacles appeared in writing teaching. First, EFL/ESL students are not accustomedwith English way of writing, including how they gathering ideas, how they organizingideas, etc. the second is the students have so many things to pay attention to. Like, usingcorrect grammar, using appropriate words and phrases, etc. because of those reasons,there must be special technique that used to solve those problems. In this research paper, we point out all of the best in both genre-based approach and process writingapproach based on the context of Teaching Writing for Senior high school in Indonesia.Writing teaching for EFL students in Indonesia has become harder since they aremove up to higher grade. For senior high school students, they usually have to facemore complicated writing, like writing reports of a discussion, writing essays, or writingmany kind of paragraphs. In writing those assignments, EFL students should haveexplained about what they are going to write. Therefore, they need models for theywriting. In this case, the writing teaching using strategies of genre-based approach. Inthe other hand, the world of education in Indonesia recently applied Educational Systemthat based on students’ competence and students’ cognitive competence are essential init. Students are taught to be critical thinkers to the problem of certain discourse thatgiven to them. This is also important to the students themselves as the opportunities toexplore who are they and what they have.
 
Combination approaches for senior high school in Indonesia 2
What is genre-based approach?
Genre is a type of text. Barrs argues that since people write many kinds of writing for more specific purpose, genre is very good to implement (1994, cited inWidiati, 1997:17). In genre-based approach writing, students are taught to write certaintype of text using a model as their guide in their writing processes. The teacher playsimportant role to build the student’s knowledge about what they are writing or how it isconstructed so the aim of the writing will be reached. It is useful for EFL/ESL studentsthat generally have no idea about English writing pattern that maybe different with whatthey have in their culture, moreover they also have to work on their grammar.Therefore, with providing the models, the students will be able to write different typesof text for different occasions.
Genre based-approach writing stages
Callaghan, Knapp, and Noble point out the stages that should be followed in ‘thecycle of teaching and learning activities’ that first invented by Martin and Rothery(1993:180, cited in Iswari, 2005: 37-38). They are :1.
 Modeling stage,
is the stage where teacher introducing the type of text thenshow and explain about how it is constructed and its function in the social life.2.
The Joint negotiation stage
, in this stage, teacher involves students to work together in groups and help them to find the topic for their specific kind of text,which the teacher wants them to master. Everyone in the class tells his opinionand then the related information will be collected.
 
Combination approaches for senior high school in Indonesia 3
3.
 Independent construction stage
, after the students specify their topic, they canstart to write with following this process of writing : ‘preparation throughdrafting, conferencing, editing, and evaluating’ then come to ‘the creativemanipulation of the genre’ ( Callaghan,et al, 1993, cited in Iswari, 2005 : 38)
What is process-writing approach?
The cognitivism had received much attention on 1970’s that influence to thelanguage learning, including ESL/EFL classroom (Nunan, 2003 : 91). ‘Critical thinkingand problem solving’ capabilities are the essence of cognitivism (Nunan, 2003 : 91).Thus, make process writing approach became popular. In this process writing, teacher and students concerned to the process of the writing itself. The supporters of this theoryargued that it is better if we look at the chance opened for students to express their ownarguments and to be more concerned with the content and the message of their writing(Nunan, 2003 : 91). Teacher gives freedom to their students to write down what is intheir mind and see it more as a process than a product. The process writing is the resultof CLT, which stressed on learner-centered instruction, students-student negotiation,and strategies-based instruction, lays the exploration of students creativity and criticalthinking as its core (Brown, 2001: 340).
Process-approach writing stages
These are the sequences of activities that students follow in the process writingapproach (Nunan, 2003 : 97-98) :

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