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1sdc007107g0201

1sdc007107g0201

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1SDC007107G0201
8
July 2008
Power actor correctionand harmonic flteringin electrical plants
 
1
Index
Technical Application Papers
Introduction
...............................................2
1 Generalities on poweractor correction
..........................3
2 Technical advantages opower actor correction
........4 
2
.1Better utilization o electrical machines ....5 
2
.2Better utilization o electrical lines ............5 
2
.3Reduction o losses ..................................6 
2
.4Reduction o voltage drop ........................6
3 Economic advantages opower actor correction
........7
4 Production means o reac-tive power4
.1Synchronous alternators ...........................8 
4
.2Synchronous compensators .....................8 
4
.3Static var compensators ...........................8 
4
.4Banks o static capacitors ........................9
5 Types o power actor (PF)correction5
.1Distributed PF correction ........................10 
5
.2Group PF correction................................11 
5
.3Centralized PF correction .......................11 
5
.4Combined PF correction .........................11 
5
.5Automatic PF correction .........................11
6 Calculation o the poweractor
......................................................12
7 Calculation o the neces-sary reactive power
.................13
7
.1PF correction o three-phase motors ......14 
7
.2PF correction o three-phasetransormers ............................................17
8 Harmonics in electricalplants
 
8
.1Harmonics ...............................................20 
8
.2The prescriptions o the Standards ........21 
8
.3Harmonic eects .....................................21
 
8
.3.1Overloads ................................................................
21 
8
.3.2Resonance ..............................................................
22 
8
.4Harmonic lters ......................................23
9 Switching and protection ocapacitor banks
 
9
.1Switching electrical phenomena .............25 
9
.2Switching and protection ........................26
 
9
.2.1Choice o the protective device...............................
26 
9
.2.2Choice o the switching device (contactor) .............
26
9
.2.3Choice o the capacitor ...........................................
27
9
.2.4Discharge o capacitors ..........................................
28
10 ABB oer10
.1Circuit-breakers ......................................30
 
10
.1.1Moulded-case circuit-breakers .............................
30 
10
.1.2Air circuit-breakers ................................................
32 
10
.2Contactors ..............................................33
 
10
.2.1Contactors UA…RA ..............................................
33 
10
.2.2Contactors UA .......................................................
34 
10
.2.3Contactors A and AF .............................................
34 
10
.3Automatic compensators ........................35 
10
.4PQF lters ...............................................37  Annex A: Selection tables or circuit-breakersand contactors ......................................................42 Annex B: Reactive power at voltage variations ....................45 Annex C: Filtering and power actor correction in distortedsteady-state .........................................................46 Annex D: Voltages and currents upon switching anddischarging o capacitors ......................................51 Annex E: Power actor correction in photovoltaic plants .....53 Annex F: Harmonics in three-phase systems with neutral ...54Glossary..............................................................56
Power actor correction and harmonic ltering inelectrical plants
 
2
Technical Application Papers
Power actor correction and harmonic ltering in electrical plants
 
Power actor correction and harmonic ltering in electrical plants
2
Introduction
I  n t   o d  u c t  i   on
In electrical plants the loads draw rom the network elec-tric power (active) as power supply source (e.g. personalcomputers, printers, diagnostic equipment, etc.) or con-vert it into another orm o energy (e.g. electrical lamps orstoves) or into mechanical output (e.g. electrical motors).To get this, it is oten necessary that the load exchangeswith the network (with net null consumption) the reactiveenergy, mainly o inductive type. This energy, even i notimmediately converted into other orms, contributes toincrease the total power fowing through in the electricalnetwork, rom the generators, all along the conductors,to the users. To smooth such negative eect, the poweractor correction o the electrical plants is carried out.The power actor correction obtained by using capacitorbanks to generate locally the reactive energy necessaryor the transer o electrical useul power, allows a betterand more rational technical-economical management othe plants.Moreover, the present spreading o direct current users,such as electronic circuits and electric drives, involve thegeneration o current harmonics which are injected intothe network, with the consequent pollution and distortiono the waveorms on other connected loads. Thereore,the use o harmonic lters, both o passive as well as oactive type, contributes to improve the overall power-quality o the network, carrying out also power actorcorrection at the network requency, when such ltersare properly sized.This technical paper has the purpose o analyzing theseproblems without going into technical details, but, start-ing rom the denition o power actor correction, roman analysis o the technical-economical advantagesand describing the orms and modalities toachieve power actor correction, itwishes to guide to the convenientchoice o the devices or theswitching o the capacitor banks and the ltering o theharmonics. In act, ater a rst descriptive part, the ABBoer is illustrated in terms o power actor correctiondevices, intended not only as suitable capacitors, butalso as those devices able to carry out switching andprotection o the capacitor banks. Besides, some solu-tions are given or both the passive and active lteringo the current harmonics generated by distorting non-linear loads.
To integrate this technical paper there are also six annexes
 providing:
•tablesforthequickchoiceandcoordinationofcircuit-
breakers and contactors or switching and protectiono capacitor banks o a determined power;
•indicationsonhowthereactivepowergeneratedatthe
variations o supply voltages changes and necessaryconsiderations to prevent reactive power rom beinginjected into the network;
•considerationsonpowerfactorcorrectionandlter
-ing under distorted steady-state conditions to pointout how canonical power actor correction implies areduction o the value o the harmonics present in thenetwork;
•descriptionsofthevoltageandcurrentcharacteristics
during the switching on and discharging o capacitorbanks;
•considerationsonpowerfactorcorrectioninphoto
-voltaic plants;
•remarksaboutthecontributionofharmonicstothe
evaluation o the current in the neutral conductor othree-phase systems.

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