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Chi Square

# Chi Square

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01/31/2015

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The Chi-Square Test
Chi-square is a statistical test commonly used to compare observed data with data we wouldexpect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis. The chi-square test is used to determine whether there isa significant difference between the expected frequencies and the observed frequencies in one or morecategories.
χ
2
= {(O
1
- E
1
)
2
/E
1
} + {(O
2
- E
2
)
2
/E
2
} =
{(O - E)
2
/E}
Where,

O
1
and
O
2
are the sample counts of individuals who do and do not possess the attribute being investigated;
E
1
and
E
2
are corresponding hypothetical or expected frequencies and
O
1
-E
1
and
O
2
-E
2
are deviations.
Application of
χ
2
:

Testing of Goodness-of-Fit

Testing Independence (or Association)

Yates Correlation

Extension of 2x2 Table

Test of Homogeneity (Similarity)
The steps in using the chi-square test may be summarized as follows:

Write the observed frequencies in column
O

Figure the expected frequencies and write them in column
E

Use the formula to find the chi-square value

Find the degree of freedom,
d.f
(
N
-1)

Find the table value (consult the Chi Square Table.)

equal to or greater than
the table value, reject the null hypothesis:
differences in your data are not due to chance alone
.
Example:Ques.
In an epidemic of certain disease, 92 children contracted the disease, of these 41 received notreatment and of these 10 showed after effects. The remainder who did receive treatment, 17showed after effects. Test the hypothesis that treatment was not effective.
(T.N.M.M.U., Sept. 2009, M.Sc N)

Ans:1.

Form a contingency table:
Treated Not Treated TotalDeveloped aftereffects
17 10 27
Not developedafter effects
34 31 65
Total
51 41 92
2.

State the hypotheses:
H
0
: There is no effectiveness in the treatment; againstH
1
: There is effectiveness in the treatment.The test statistics is
χ
2
=
{(O - E)
2
/E}

χ
2(r-1) (c-1) d.f