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Unbelievable Particles

Unbelievable Particles

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07/01/2013

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NeutrinosUnbelievable particles
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 Neutrinos are unbelievable particles!
Who foresaw their existence?
Already in 1930 Wolfgang Pauli foresaw the existence of a new particle, later getting the name
neutrino
(itl. for “a little neutral one”)The physicists had for a long time tried to find an explanation for missing energy balance when beta particles (electrons) emanated bysome kinds of radioactivity.There was something that would not agree; yes it was in conflictwith the principle of the law of conservation of energy.Pauli suggested that a “neutrino particle” cut off with some of theenergy, but he added: “I have done something awful; I have predicted a particle which not can be detected”. (2)
The neutrino is detected.
In 1955 a particle corresponding to what Pauli had predicted was found, and it was closely connectedto the electron. Later, one found out that there actually exist three variants of neutrino, where two of them were some heavier muon- and tau-electrons. Those three has got their names as V
e
(1955) V
m
(1962) and V
t
(1978). (1)Common for these three types of electrons and their links to neutrinos is that they will not be affected by the so called “strong force”, which keeps the atomic nucleus together. Such particles are calledleptons. Together with quarks, all attached to the atomic nucleus (protons and neutrons), these twogroups form the whole foundation of the universe (6).There has been much disagreement whether a neutrino really has a mass. The existence of masswould be of substantial interest to the comprehension of gravitation in the universe, and perhaps alsoto the understanding of the assumed”dark matter” out in space. (1) The sun stands for a considerable part of all neutrinos coming to our earth. Cosmic radiation goinginto our athmosphere liberates neutrons of the muon type, and some kind of radioactivity contributesfor a certain amount of neutrinos. The so called “high energy neutrinos” are assumed to come fromsuper-nova explosions. By such occasions as much as 99 % of all energy is assumed released asneutrinos. In 1987 there was observed a supernova in The Great Magellan Cloud. When thishappened, the density of neutrinos hitting the earth corresponded to 100 millions of neutrinos per second on an area corresponding to a tumbfinger-nail!Such neutrinos have a speed close up to light, and will unhindered pass the enormous electromagneticforces around galaxies. They go only straight forward, and could do so in eternity. Even if they meet a barrier of lead, 50 light-years thick, they will unaffected pass. They also contain an unbelievablequantity of energy. By collision with a proton, the energy liberated corresponds to the kinetic energyin a baseball coming with an 80 km / h speed. (2) 
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How to detect neutrinos? 
This is possible because it happens (very, very seldom) that a neutrino particle collides with a proton.When this happens, a muon type neutrino is formed. This muon particle should get a speed about 25% higher than the speed of light, but here the nature “takes over“. For not exceeding the light speed(300 000 km/s) the muon must get rid of excessive energy, and gives away some light, the so called
Cherenkov Light 
, as a thin, bluish streak (4,5).A neutrino-detector is therefore quite differentfrom an astronomic observatory. It has anenormous tank filled up with pure water, androws of sensors, named photomultipliers.When the surrounding medium is pure and clear water, and it is complete darkness, the photomultiplier will be able to detect the lightstreaks in a range of some tenth meters. Theywill also be able to indicate the direction with anaccuracy of 3.5 degrees, and therefore tell theaccurate point on the sky where the neutrino particle came from.All we know today about the universe has come to us by observations of light, included all types of  photons as visible light, infrared and ultraviolet, and besides spectrum of electromagnetic radiation,like radio waves and x-rays. All these kinds of radiation have on their way been influenced fromelectromagnetic and gravimetric fields, causing uncertainty about their origin place.This is not the case for the neutrinos. They have gone in a straight line from their origin, and this startcan be billions of light years away.
Different types of detectors
Detectors have been built on different places around the earth. To avoidinfluence from cosmic radiation and neutrinos from our own sun, manydetectors are placed in great, blasted rooms in deep rock-ground, but alsoin very deep and clear water.The first project for detecting neutrino-induced muons in natural water was the Russian installation in the deep Baikal.sea, with depths down to1523 meters. (1)Another type has been placed on the South Pole, on US Amundsen-ScottStation, called Amanda. It was primarily aiming to detect high energeticneutrinos from black holes, gamma outburst and supernovas in far galaxies.The next detector, called Amanda II, followed this. After drilling 1900 meters down in the ice, theyinstalled 680 detectors (photomultipliers) in the size of basketballs, hanging down in 19 cables. Thedetection system is surrounded by pure ice, and in complete darkness in a depth from 1500 to 1900meters. Amanda did their first detection in summer 2001, and two years later the results was published in Sidney. These have given astronomers very surprising and new visions about cosmos. (1)
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