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Living Rev. Relativity, 13, (2010), 1 Http://Www.livingreviews.org/Lrr-2010-1

Living Rev. Relativity, 13, (2010), 1 Http://Www.livingreviews.org/Lrr-2010-1

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Living Rev. Relativity 
,
13
, (2010), 1
L I V I N G REVIEWS
in relativity 
Interferometer Techniques for Gravitational-Wave Detection
Andreas Freise
School o Physics and AstronomyUniversity o BirminghamBirmingham, B15 2TT, UKemail: ad@star.sr.bham.ac.uk
Kenneth Strain
Department o Physics and AstronomyUniversity o GlasgowGlasgow G12 8QQ, UKemail: k.strain@physics.gla.ac.ukAccepted on 15 February 2010Published on 25 February 2010
Abstract
Several km-scale gravitational-wave detectors have been constructed world wide. Theseinstruments combine a number o advanced technologies to push the limits o precision lengthmeasurement. The core devices are laser intererometers o a new kind; developed rom theclassical Michelson topology these intererometers integrate additional optical elements, whichsignicantly change the properties o the optical system. Much o the design and analy-sis o these laser intererometers can be perormed using well-known classical optical tech-niques, however, the complex optical layouts provide a new challenge. In this review we givea textbook-style introduction to the optical science required or the understanding o moderngravitational wave detectors, as well as other high-precision laser intererometers. In addition,we provide a number o examples or a reely available intererometer simulation sotware andencourage the reader to use these examples to gain hands-on experience with the discussedoptical methods.
This review is licensed under a Creative CommonsAttribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Germany License.
 
Imprint / Terms o Use
Living Reviews in Relativity 
is a peer reviewed open access journal published by the Max PlanckInstitute or Gravitational Physics, Am M¨uhlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam, Germany. ISSN 1433-8351.This review is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs 3.0Germany License:
Because a
Living Reviews
article can evolve over time, we recommend to cite the article as ollows:Andreas Freise and Kenneth Strain,“Intererometer Techniques or Gravitational-Wave Detection”,
Living Rev. Relativity 
,
13
, (2010), 1. [Online Article]: cited [
<
date
>
],http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2010-1The date given as
<
date
>
then uniquely identies the version o the article you are reerring to.
Article Revisions
Living Reviews
supports two diferent ways to keep its articles up-to-date:
Fast-track revision
A ast-track revision provides the author with the opportunity to add shortnotices o current research results, trends and developments, or important publications tothe article. A ast-track revision is reereed by the responsible subject editor. I an articlehas undergone a ast-track revision, a summary o changes will be listed here.
Major update
A major update will include substantial changes and additions and is subject toull external reereeing. It is published with a new publication number.For detailed documentation o an article’s evolution, please reer always to the history documento the article’s online version at
.
 
Contents
1.1 The scope and style o the review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2 Overview o the goals o intererometer design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.3 Overview o the physics o the primary intererometer components. . . . . . . . . 61.4 Plane-wave analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.5 Frequency domain analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1 Mirrors and spaces: reection, transmission and propagation. . . . . . . . . . . . 92.2 The two-mirror resonator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.3 Coupling matrices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.4 Phase relation at a mirror or beam splitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.4.1 Composite optical suraces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142.5 Lengths and tunings: numerical accuracy o distances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.6 Revised coupling matrices or space and mirrors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.7
examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.7.1 Mirror reectivity and transmittance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.7.2 Length and tunings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.1 Modulation o light elds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223.2 Phase modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.3 Frequency modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243.4 Amplitude modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.5 Sidebands as phasors in a rotating rame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.6 Phase modulation through a moving mirror. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.7 Coupling matrices or beams with multiple requency components. . . . . . . . . . 283.8
examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.8.1 Modulation index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.8.2 Mirror modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.1 Detection o optical beats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.2 Signal demodulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324.3
examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354.3.1 Optical beat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.1 The two-mirror cavity: a Fabry–P´erot intererometer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365.2 Michelson intererometer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405.3
examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425.3.1 Michelson power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425.3.2 Michelson modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
6.1 Error signals and transer unctions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446.2 Fabry–P´erot length sensing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466.3 The Pound–Drever–Hall length sensing scheme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476.4 Michelson length sensing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

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