What You Will Learn...
India became a British colonyollowing the 1857 uprising.
Under British rule, Indiasufered poverty, amineand lack o reedom. Theseinspired the Indian inde-pendence movement.
Through mostly non-violent means, India wonindependence ater WorldWar II, but Pakistan wasdivided of or Muslims.
Nationalism or patriotism is love and devotion toone’s country. Beore the 19th century, people elt loyalty to their regionalruler and culture. They were less concerned about the country they sharedwith others. Starting in the 19th century, people developed political senti-ments or their country as a whole and promoted a national identity.
As we learned in the last lesson, the British East India Companycame to dominate India through its clever use of political strategy,
and military force. In
India became a colony of theBritish Empire. Powerful nations, including England, Spain, Portugal,France and Holland, had used their nancial and military power toestablish colonies in Asia, Africa and the Americas. Many colonies,such as in North America and in Australia, were created by militaryconquest. The conquerors drove out or killed the native peoples,whom they regarded as subhuman. They then settled the land withimmigrants from their own countries. Other colonies, such as India,were rst opened through trade and commerce which eventually ledto their foreign economic domination and political control. England’scolonies included India, Burma, Ceylon, Malaysia, Singapore andhundreds of other territories large and small worldwide. The Englishdefended their conquests by claiming that they were a superior racewith a noble mission: to spread Western civilization. This soundsvery racist today. But it was then a rm belief of most Englishmen.While England proted from its colonies, the colonies sufferedoppression and disease. In the 19th century, the British did bringnotable advances of the Industrial Revolution to India. But a century
This column in each o thethree sections presents oursubject outline or India andHinduism rom 1850 to 1947.
Assess the impact o colonization, especiallyEnglish education, onthe people o India.
Explain how theuprising against theEast India Company ledto the establishmento the British Raj.
Describe the history o India’smovement or independence,including the role o Gandhi’snonviolent campaigns.
Teaching StandardsThe Big Idea
Ater ten centuries o alienoccupation and a centuryo struggle, the Indian peopleregained their independence.
hinduism today april/may/june, 2010
British Rule’sMixed Blessings
If YOU lved then...
You are a Hindu sepoy in the Indian army in 1857. New rie cartridgeshave been issued. To use them, you have to bite of the tip, which issmeared with bee at. You have never eaten or even tasted meat, askilling animals, especially cows, goes against your religious belies. I you reuse, you will be arrested—and possibly executed. I you runaway, you risk the same ate.
What do you do, and why?